Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

How Prior Expectations Influence Older Adults’ Perception and Action During Object Interaction

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Multisensory Research
For more content, see Seeing and Perceiving and Spatial Vision.

The apparent size of an object can influence how we interact with and perceive the weight of objects in our environment. Little is known, however, about how this cue affects behaviour across the lifespan. Here, in the context of the size–weight illusion, we examined how visual size cues influenced the predictive application of fingertip forces and perceptions of heaviness in a group of older participants. We found that our older sample experienced a robust size–weight illusion, which did not differ from that experienced by younger participants. Older and young participants also experienced a real weight difference to a similar degree. By contrast, compared to younger participants our older group showed no evidence that size cues influenced the way they initially gripped and lifted the objects. These results highlight a unique dissociation between how perception and action diverge across the lifespan, and suggest that deficits in the ability to use prediction to guide actions might underpin some of the manual interaction difficulties experienced by the older adults.

Affiliations: 1: 1Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Richards Building, University of Exeter, UK ; 2: 2Department of Psychology, Heriot-Watt University, UK

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:
Loading data from figshare Loading data from figshare

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Blumen H. M., Holtzer R., Brown L. L., Gazes Y., Verghese J. (2014). "Behavioral and neural correlates of imagined walking and walking-while-talking in the elderly", Hum. Brain Mapp. Vol 35, 40904104. [Crossref]
2. Buckingham G. (2014). "Getting a grip on heaviness perception: a review of weight illusions and their probable causes", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 232, 16231629. [Crossref]
3. Buckingham G., Cant J. S., Goodale M. A. (2009). "Living in a material world: how visual cues to material properties affect the way that we lift objects and perceive their weight", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 102, 31113118. [Crossref]
4. Buckingham G., Ranger N. S., Goodale M. A. (2011a). "The material–weight illusion induced by expectations alone", Atten. Percept. Psychophys. Vol 73, 3641. [Crossref]
5. Buckingham G., Ranger N. S., Goodale M. A. (2011b). "The role of vision in detecting and correcting fingertip force errors during object lifting", J. Vis. Vol 11, 4.
6. Buckingham G., Bieńkiewicz M., Rohrbach N., Hermsdörfer J. (2015a). "The impact of unilateral brain damage on weight perception, sensorimotor anticipation, and fingertip force adaptation", Vis. Res. Vol 115(Pt B), 231237. [Crossref]
7. Buckingham G., Milne J. L., Byrne C. M., Goodale M. A. (2015b). "The size–weight illusion induced through human echolocation", Psychol. Sci. Vol 26, 237242. [Crossref]
8. Buckingham G., Michelakakis E. E., Rajendran G. (2016a). "The influence of prior knowledge on perception and action: relationships to autistic traits", J. Autism Dev. Disord. Vol 46, 17161724. [Crossref]
9. Buckingham G., Michelakakis E. E., Cole J. (2016b). "Perceiving and acting upon weight illusions in the absence of somatosensory information", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 115, 19461953. [Crossref]
10. Buckingham G., Goodale M. A., White J. A., Westwood D. A. (2016c). "Equal-magnitude size–weight illusions experienced within and between object categories", J. Vis. Vol 16, 25.
11. Charpentier A. (1891). "Analyse expérimentale de quelques éléments de la sensation de poids", Arch. Physiol. Norm. Pathol. Vol 3, 122135.
12. Chouinard P. A., Leonard G., Paus T. (2005). "Role of the primary motor and dorsal premotor cortices in the anticipation of forces during object lifting", J. Neurosci. Vol 25, 22772284. [Crossref]
13. Cole K. J. (2006). "Age-related directional bias of fingertip force", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 175, 285291. [Crossref]
14. Cole K. J. (2008). "Lifting a familiar object: visual size analysis, not memory for object weight, scales lift force", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 188, 551557. [Crossref]
15. Cole K. J., Rotella D. L. (2002). "Old age impairs the use of arbitrary visual cues for predictive control of fingertip forces during grasp", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 143, 3541. [Crossref]
16. Cole K. J., Rotella D. L., Harper J. G. (1998). "Tactile impairments cannot explain the effect of age on a grasp and lift task", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 121, 263269. [Crossref]
17. Cole K. J., Rotella D. L., Harper J. G. (1999). "Mechanisms for age-related changes of fingertip forces during precision gripping and lifting in adults", J. Neurosci. Vol 19, 32383247.
18. Ellis R. R., Lederman S. J. (1993). "The role of haptic versus visual volume cues in the size–weight illusion", Percept. Psychophys. Vol 53, 315324. [Crossref]
19. Flanagan J. R., Beltzner M. A. (2000). "Independence of perceptual and sensorimotor predictions in the size–weight illusion", Nat. Neurosci. Vol 3, 737741. [Crossref]
20. Flanagan J. R., Bittner J. P., Johansson R. S. (2008). "Experience can change distinct size–weight priors engaged in lifting objects and judging their weights", Curr. Biol. Vol 18, 17421747. [Crossref]
21. Folstein M. F., Folstein S. E., McHugh P. R. (1975). "‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician", J. Psychiat. Res. Vol 12, 189198. [Crossref]
22. Gescheider G. A., Bolanowski S. J., Hall K. L., Hoffman K. E., Verrillo R. T. (1994). "The effects of aging on information-processing channels in the sense of touch: I. Absolute sensitivity", Somatosens. Mot. Res. Vol 11, 345357. [Crossref]
23. Gordon A. M., Forssberg H., Johansson R. S., Westling G. (1991). "Visual size cues in the programming of manipulative forces during precision grip", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 83, 477482.
24. Gordon A. M., Forssberg H., Johansson R. S., Eliasson A. C., Westling G. (1992). "Development of human precision grip. III. Integration of visual size cues during the programming of isometric forces", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 90, 399403. [Crossref]
25. Gordon A. M., Westling G., Cole K. J., Johansson R. S. (1993). "Memory representations underlying motor commands used during manipulation of common and novel objects", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 69, 17891796.
26. Gorniak S. L., Zatsiorsky V. M., Latash M. L. (2011). "Manipulation of a fragile object by elderly individuals", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 212, 505516. [Crossref]
27. Grandy M. S., Westwood D. A. (2006). "Opposite perceptual and sensorimotor responses to a size–weight illusion", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 95, 38873892. [Crossref]
28. Hermsdörfer J., Li Y., Randerath J., Goldenberg G., Eidenmüller S. (2011). "Anticipatory scaling of grip forces when lifting objects of everyday life", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 212, 1931. [Crossref]
29. Johansson R. S., Flanagan J. R. (2009). "Coding and use of tactile signals from the fingertips in object manipulation tasks", Nat. Rev. Neurosci. Vol 10, 345359. [Crossref]
30. Kapur S., Zatsiorsky V. M., Latash M. L. (2010). "Age-related changes in the control of finger force vectors", J. Appl. Physiol. Vol 109, 18271841. [Crossref]
31. Kinoshita H., Francis P. R. (1996). "A comparison of prehension force control in young and elderly individuals", Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. Vol 74, 450460. [Crossref]
32. Kloos H., Amazeen E. L. (2002). "Perceiving heaviness by dynamic touch: an investigation of the size–weight illusion in preschoolers", Br. J. Dev. Psychol. Vol 20, 171183. [Crossref]
33. Li Y., Randerath J., Goldenberg G., Hermsdörfer J. (2011). "Size–weight illusion and anticipatory grip force scaling following unilateral cortical brain lesion", Neuropsychologia Vol 49, 914923. [Crossref]
34. Lindenberger U., Marsiske M., Baltes P. B. (2000). "Memorizing while walking: increase in dual-task costs from young adulthood to old age", Psychol. Aging Vol 15, 417436. [Crossref]
35. Loh M. N., Kirsch L., Rothwell J. C., Lemon R. N., Davare M. (2010). "Information about the weight of grasped objects from vision and internal models interacts within the primary motor cortex", J. Neurosci. Vol 30, 69846990. [Crossref]
36. Mawase F., Karniel A. (2010). "Evidence for predictive control in lifting series of virtual objects", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 203, 447452. [Crossref]
37. Mon-Williams M., Murray A. H. (2000). "The size of the visual size cue used for programming manipulative forces during precision grip", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 135, 405410. [Crossref]
38. Murray D. J., Ellis R. R., Bandomir C. A., Ross H. E. (1999). "Charpentier (1891) on the size–weight illusion", Percept. Psychophys. Vol 61, 16811685. [Crossref]
39. Nicolas S., Ross H. E., Murray D. J. (2012). "Charpentier’s papers of 1886 and 1891 on weight perception and the size–weight illusion", Percept. Mot. Skills Vol 115, 120141. [Crossref]
40. Pick H. L., Pick A. D. (1967). "A developmental and analytic study of the size–weight illusion", J. Exp. Child Psychol. Vol 5, 362371. [Crossref]
41. Robinson H. B. (1964). "An experimental examination of the size–weight illusion in young children", Child Dev. Vol 35, 91.
42. Seidler R. D., Bernard J. A., Burutolu T. B., Fling B. W., Gordon M. T., Gwin J. T., Kwak Y., Lipps D. B. (2010). "Motor control and aging: links to age-related brain structural, functional, and biochemical effects", Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. Vol 34, 721733. [Crossref]
43. Srygley J. M., Mirelman A., Herman T., Giladi N., Hausdorff J. M. (2009). "When does walking alter thinking? Age and task associated findings", Brain Res. Vol 1253, 9299. [Crossref]
44. Trewartha K. M., Flanagan J. R. (2016). "Distinct contributions of explicit and implicit memory processes to weight prediction when lifting objects and judging their weights: an aging study", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 116, 11281136. [Crossref]
45. Trewartha K. M., Garcia A., Wolpert D. M., Flanagan J. R. (2014). "Fast but fleeting: adaptive motor learning processes associated with aging and cognitive decline", J. Neurosci. Vol 34, 1341113421. [Crossref]
46. Van Polanen V., Davare M. (2015). "Sensorimotor memory biases weight perception during object lifting", Front. Hum. Neurosci. Vol 9, 700. [Crossref]
47. Zwislocki J. J., Goodman D. A. (1980). "Absolute scaling of sensory magnitudes: a validation", Percept. Psychophys. Vol 28, 2838. [Crossref]

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Multisensory Research — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation