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The Alienation of “Semi-formal Administration” and Its Solutions: A Study of Land Requisition and Housing Relocation

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当前“半正式行政”的异化与改进——以征地拆迁为例

image of Rural China

“Semi-formal administration,” which has been practiced as a viable alternative in grassroots-level governance for its low cost and high effectiveness in communicating with local residents, has undergone a process of “alienation” since it is used by local governments to reduce the political risks involved. This essay analyzes the triangular relationship among “formal administration,” “semi-formal administration,” and the “community (or village).” It argues that the effectiveness of “semi-formal administration” depends on the supervision by the formal administration and the functionality of the everyday and political mechanisms sustaining the community. Paradoxically, however, the strict, quantitative requirements enforced by the central government in supervising the local authorities through the system of “formal administration” have driven local government officials to abuse the mechanisms of “semi-formal administrative,” which in turn curtails and eliminates the space for the proper functioning of the “community.” “Semi-formal administration” can be improved by fixing the procedural and technical issues or rebuilding the mechanisms of the “community.” (This article is in Chinese.)摘要当前“半正式行政”有异化的倾向。很多时候,其不再是基层治理中低成本高效率沟通民众的正面技术,反而成为地方政府规避政治风险的负面技术。“半正式行政”应放在“正式行政”-“半正式行政”-“社区(村庄)”三者关系中分析。发挥正面效用的“半正式行政”,需要“正式行政”的监督,更扎根于运行良好的“社区(村庄)”生活场和政治场。当前的吊诡之处在于,中央政府在“正式行政”体系中对地方政府设置了严格量化的监督指标,结果地方政府却进一步权宜性地滥用“半正式行政”,并抑制和封闭“社区(村庄)”的政治运行空间。“半正式行政”的改进,由“事”而起的可以走科层和技术路线,由“人”而起的则需要“社区(村庄)”生活场和政治场的重塑。

10.1163/22136746-01202003
/content/journals/10.1163/22136746-01202003
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2015-11-18
2017-11-20

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