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Full Access Organized Violent Conflicts over Water Control in Rural China: The Jianghan Plain, 1839–1979 (江汉平原清后期以来与水利有关的有组织的暴力冲突)

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Organized Violent Conflicts over Water Control in Rural China: The Jianghan Plain, 1839–1979 (江汉平原清后期以来与水利有关的有组织的暴力冲突)

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Abstract This article explores organized violent conflicts over water control in the Jianghan plain, 2 Hubei, central China, from 1839 to 1979. These include both large-scale conflicts between residents of the upper and lower reaches of the rivers of the Jianghan plain, or between residents on the opposite banks of the same rivers, and small-scale conflicts between neighboring polders or villages or clans. The organizers of these conflicts were usually men with military experience or were community leaders, such as clan leaders and village cadres. Their methods of organization included issuing flyers, establishing (illegal) dike bureaus, and mobilizing members of a whole village or clan. These kinds of organized violence over water control were civil actions involving villagers struggling to protect and promote their interests, not revolutionary action aimed at overthrowing the government. In the pre-1949 era, the government usually responded to such conflicts slowly and passively; in the post-1949 era, the government has responded quickly and actively. As a result, organized conflicts over water control occurred more often and were more violent in the pre-1949 era. This demonstrates that the occurrence of organized violent conflicts caused by human nature and environmental issues are not necessarily related to a sociopolitical form and its change, but their scope and frequency are determined by state control. (This article is in English.) 摘要 本文探讨华中地区湖北江汉平原自 1839 年至 1979 年间与水利有关的有组织的暴力冲突, 包括河流上下游、左右岸居民之间的大规模冲突与邻垸、邻村、或不同家族之间小规模的冲突。这些冲突的组织者往往是有军事经验者或地方领袖, 如族长及乡村干部。其组织方法包括发放传单、私设堤局、及全村(族)动员等。这种为争水权的有组织的暴力冲突只是老百姓为保护、促进切身利益的民事行为, 不是旨在推翻政府的革命行动。冲突发生后, 1949 年以前政府往往应对缓慢、被动, 而 1949 年以后政府则迅速、积极处理。因此此类由水利而引起的有组织的冲突在清代民国发生较多、更具暴力。这表明这种因人本性、因自然环境原因而形成的有组织的暴力冲突与社会政治形态及其改变没有必然关系, 但冲突的规模与发生的频率则与政府的控制有关。

10.1163/22136746-12341240
/content/journals/10.1163/22136746-12341240
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Abstract This article explores organized violent conflicts over water control in the Jianghan plain, 2 Hubei, central China, from 1839 to 1979. These include both large-scale conflicts between residents of the upper and lower reaches of the rivers of the Jianghan plain, or between residents on the opposite banks of the same rivers, and small-scale conflicts between neighboring polders or villages or clans. The organizers of these conflicts were usually men with military experience or were community leaders, such as clan leaders and village cadres. Their methods of organization included issuing flyers, establishing (illegal) dike bureaus, and mobilizing members of a whole village or clan. These kinds of organized violence over water control were civil actions involving villagers struggling to protect and promote their interests, not revolutionary action aimed at overthrowing the government. In the pre-1949 era, the government usually responded to such conflicts slowly and passively; in the post-1949 era, the government has responded quickly and actively. As a result, organized conflicts over water control occurred more often and were more violent in the pre-1949 era. This demonstrates that the occurrence of organized violent conflicts caused by human nature and environmental issues are not necessarily related to a sociopolitical form and its change, but their scope and frequency are determined by state control. (This article is in English.) 摘要 本文探讨华中地区湖北江汉平原自 1839 年至 1979 年间与水利有关的有组织的暴力冲突, 包括河流上下游、左右岸居民之间的大规模冲突与邻垸、邻村、或不同家族之间小规模的冲突。这些冲突的组织者往往是有军事经验者或地方领袖, 如族长及乡村干部。其组织方法包括发放传单、私设堤局、及全村(族)动员等。这种为争水权的有组织的暴力冲突只是老百姓为保护、促进切身利益的民事行为, 不是旨在推翻政府的革命行动。冲突发生后, 1949 年以前政府往往应对缓慢、被动, 而 1949 年以后政府则迅速、积极处理。因此此类由水利而引起的有组织的冲突在清代民国发生较多、更具暴力。这表明这种因人本性、因自然环境原因而形成的有组织的暴力冲突与社会政治形态及其改变没有必然关系, 但冲突的规模与发生的频率则与政府的控制有关。

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/content/journals/10.1163/22136746-12341240
2013-01-01
2016-12-10

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