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الغضب مفرداته ومثيراته في ضوء النصوص المصرية القديمة (Anger: Its Lexical Meanings and its Motives in the Light of Ancient Egyptian Texts)

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The researcher collected about twenty-one words in Ancient Egyptian language, each of them meaning anger; as well as many derivations of these words through sign commutation, sign germination, and sign additions (such as causatives; of the infinitive). Specific words may also be added some of these lexical meanings to form expressions denoting to anger and its responses simultaneously. The researcher noted that some of these words expressed the meaning of anger contextually, not lexically, due to the connection between its lexical meanings and emotional responses of anger. The emotion stimuli of anger, or stressful events that led to it, combined in Ancient Egypt, stimuli related to the abuse and harm to the angry, materially and morally (such as honor violation, assault and battery, losing wishes, difference of opinion; and may be also as a result of the other‘s misconduct, the misconduct toward the ruler and the country‘s security). Obviously, this latter type of stimuli associated with the king personality (such as his anger concerning triumph delay, contumacy toward him and his country, as well as threaten its security). The ancient Egyptian noted, through experience, that anger of the Warrior King had an impact in achieving victory; it is an effect that was proven by modern psychology; this led the ancient Egyptian to connect permanently between the anger emotion of the king and his military activities. So the desire to winning represented permanent stimuli, tempted the royal anger through wars. This is known in modern psychology “Behavioral Reactions”, that is if anger achieved a positive result for an individual, it would be an encouragement for an individual to use it in similar situations afterward. Finally, we have another type of anger stimuli associated with the deceased; it is his expectations to be exposed in the afterlife by forms of abuse and harm that would prevent him from obtaining what he wishes. The researcher divided his study into two parts, tracked in the first the lexical meanings denoting anger in ancient Egyptian language, according to its order in the ancient Egyptian dictionaries. The second part discussed the anger stimuli in light of the ancient Egyptian texts. The last part has three topics, guided by modern psychology, the first is entitled “The Conditions and External Factors”; the second is “The Reactions Behavioral”; and the last topic is “The Expectations”.(Please note that this article is in Arabic)


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