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Faith and Defiance (信仰与反抗:毛泽东统治时期的基督徒囚犯)

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Christian Prisoners in Maoist China

The persecution of Chinese Christians after the outbreak of the Korean War raised important questions about faith and politics in a state-centric society. This article examines the experience and memory of three Protestant religious prisoners in the Maoist era: Watchman Nee (Ni Tuosheng 倪柝声), who founded the Christian Assembly (jidutu juhuichu 基督徒聚会处) or Little Flock (xiaoqun 小群) in early twentieth-century China; Epaphras Wu (Wu Weizun 吳维僔), an active Little Flock member; and Robert Huang (Huang Zhaojian 黃兆坚), who organized Seventh-Day Adventist activities in 1950s Shanghai. The persecution stories of these religious leaders entered Chinese Christian hagiography, providing Chinese Christians with a shared cultural resource that transcended denominational and theological differences. Central to my investigation are questions about how Christians reacted to Maoism, how they came to terms with the traumatizing experience of incarceration as part of a broader life struggle, and how Chinese churches made sense of these persecution narratives to assert their faith and agency. A closer look at the history of these religious prisoners enables us to capture faith-based resistance at an individual level, and to contextualize the particularities of each persecution in the Maoist period.朝鲜战争爆发之后,对基督徒的迫害在中国这样一个国家主导的社会里是一个严重的信仰与政治问题。本文探究了毛泽东时代三位基督新教徒囚犯的经历与回忆。第一位是倪柝声,二十世纪早期中国基督徒聚会处或小群的创始人;吴维僔,一位活跃的小群信徒;以及黄兆坚,50年代上海基督复临安息日会活动的组织者。这三位基督徒领袖受迫害的故事纳入了中国基督徒的圣人史,为中国基督徒提供了超越宗派神学差异的共享文化资源。本文的核心问题是,这些基督徒如何应对毛泽东思想,他们如何忍受漫长的囚禁生涯,以及中国教会如何理解这些事迹以维护其信仰与教会。深入分析这些被囚基督徒的历史能帮助我们捕捉个人层面以信仰为根基的反抗,以及理解毛时期每个逼迫案例的独特性。

Affiliations: 1: Pace University, jlee@pace.edu

10.1163/22143955-00402002
/content/journals/10.1163/22143955-00402002
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2017-11-30
2018-09-26

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