Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The Simultaneity of Compliance and Resistance (既顺从又抗爭:佛教、虛雲與五十年代的中共政权)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Buddhism, Xuyun, and the Early Communist Regime

image of Review of Religion and Chinese Society

To examine the history of Chinese Buddhism in the early Communist regime, I propose to study Xuyun (虛雲, 1840–1958), one of the pre-eminent monks in modern China. I will delineate the ways in which Xuyun brought his religion in line with Marxist politics. To help Buddhism secure a place in the early People’s Republic of China, he took part in the construction of a new Buddhism compatible with socialist ideology. However, I would venture to conceptualize as resistance some of Xuyun’s efforts to preserve Buddhism. This article examines his resistance at two levels. First, while working hard to prove the value of Buddhism to the state, Xuyun mounted what can be regarded as rightful resistance. When possible, he confronted policies and authorities that hurt the sangha, but did so without challenging the legitimacy of the CCP. Second, in the 1950s, Xuyun strove to instruct Chinese Buddhists in self-cultivation. As he shared his experience and knowledge about spiritual practice with fellow Buddhists, he showed them, especially monastics, how to uphold Buddhist ideals in a political context marked by hostility towards religions.為了探究五十年代中共政權下的佛教歷史,本文探討現代中國最傑出的法師之一,虛雲法師 (1840–1958) 如何調整自己的宗教来適應馬克思主義政權。為了使佛教能夠在新中國成立之初生存,虛雲法師參與了構建與社會主義意識形態相適應的新佛教。但是,本文進一步嘗試把虛雲法師保存佛教的一些努力定義為抗爭,細究他在如下兩個方面的反抗:首先,在向國家證明佛教價值的同時,虛雲始終在正當性的名義下進行抗爭。在不挑戰中共政權合法性的前提下,他試圖抵抗對僧團不利的政策和政治權威。其次,虛雲法師在50年代堅持延續佛教、特别是禪宗的修行傳統。他希望佛門弟子,尤其是僧人,能在反宗教的政治氣候下繼續延續佛教的理念—这,對虛雲而言,是更重要的抗爭。

Affiliations: 1: Oregon State University iph@oregonstate.edu

10.1163/22143955-00402004
/content/journals/10.1163/22143955-00402004
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/22143955-00402004
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Anonymous. [1913] 2008. “"Jichan zhuyi zhi shixing” 集產主義之實行 (How to practice the theory on collective property)". In Jinghui 2008, Vol 6: 299.
2. Anonymous. [1959] 2008. “"Shenming shiyou su” 申明事由訴 (My clarifications)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 2: 322326.
3. Ashiwa Yoshiko,, and Wank David. 2009. Making Religion, Making the State: The Politics of Religion in Modern China . Stanford, ca: Stanford University Press.
4. Benn James,. 2007. “"Fire and the Sword: Some Connections between Self-Immolation and Religious Persecution in the History of Chinese Buddhism".” In The Buddhist Dead: Practices, Discourses, Representations , edited by Cuevas Bryan J., and Stone Jacqueline Ilyse, pp. 234265. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
5. “"Bianzhenan” 編者案 (Editor’s words)". 1950. Xiandai foxue 現代佛學 (Modern Buddhist studies) Vol 1(2): 10.
6. Campo Daniela,. 2016. “"Chan Master Xuyun: The Embodiment of an Ideal, the Transmission of a Model".” In Making Saints in Modern China , edited by Ownby David,, Goossaert Vincent,, and Zhe Ji, pp. 99136. New York: Oxford University Press.
7. Chen Mingshu 陳銘樞 1950a. "“Faxiji” 法喜集 (Dharma bliss)". Xiandai foxue Vol 1 (3): 26.
8. Chen Mingshu 陳銘樞 1950b. "“Foxue de jiben yaoyi he yanjiu ta de fanga yu shijian ta de guilu” 佛學底基本要義和研究它的方法與實踐它的規律 (The basics of Buddhism and how they can be studied and implemented)". Xiandai foxue Vol 1 (1): 410.
9. Chen Mingshu 陳銘樞 1951. "“Fojiaotu dangqian renwu yu yuanwang” 佛教徒當前任務與愿愿望 (The current duties and hopes of the Buddhists)". Xiandai foxue Vol 1 (10): 3536.
10. Dumoulin Heinrich,. 2005. Zen Buddhism: India and China , vol. Vol 1. Translated by Heisig James, and Knitter Paul. Bloomington, in: World Wisdom.
11. “"Duzhe laixin"” 读者来信 (Letters from readers). 1952. Xiandai foxue Vol 3(1): 2428.
12. Ermai 二埋. 1953"“Lun Sangui de shou yu shou” 論三歸的授與受 (On the Three Refuges)". 1953. Xiandai foxue Vol 4.39 1416.
13. Foulk T. Griffith,. 1999. “"Sung Controversies Concerning the Separate Transmission".” In Buddhism in the Sung , edited by Gregory Peter N., and Getz Daniel A., Jr., pp. 220294. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
14. Foyuan 佛源. 2007. Foyuan laoheshang fahui 佛源老和尚法滙 (The collected works of Venerable Foyuan). Sichuan fojiao xiehui and Guangdong yunmensi.
15. Gernet Jacques,. 1995. Buddhism in Chinese Society: An Economic History from the Fifth to the Tenth Centuries . Translated by Verellen Franciscus. New York: Columbia University Press.
16. Geshe Sherab Gyatso 喜饒嘉措. 1960. “"Zhongguo Fojiao de xinqixiang”" 中國佛教的新氣象 (A new phenomenon of Chinese Buddhism). Renmin ribao (The people’s daily), April 15.
17. Holcombe Charles. 1994. In the Shadow of Han: Literati Thought and Society at the Beginning of the Southern Dynasties . Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
18. Hollander Jocelyn A.,, and Einwohner Rachel. 2004. “"Conceptualizing Resistance".” Sociological Forum Vol 19 (4): 533554.
19. Hsu Sung-peng. 1979. A Buddhist Leader in Ming China: The Life and Thought of Han-Shan Te-Ch’ing . University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
20. Huang Nianzu, 黄念祖. [1987] 2008. “"Huang Nanzu lao jushi yi xulao” 黄念祖老居士憶虚老 (Huang Nianzu’s recollection of Venerable Xuyun)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 7:479483.
21. Huang Zhigang 黄芝崗. 1950. "“Lun Fojiao yu xin zhengzhi” 論佛法與新政治 (Buddhism and new politics)". Xiandai foxue Vol 1 (2): 1012.
22. Huimin. 2009. “"An Inquiry into Master Xuyun’s Experiences of Long-dwelling in Samādhi".” Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal Vol 22: 4568.
23. Jessup J. Brooks. 2012. “"Beyond Ideological Conflict: Political Incorporation of Buddhist Youth in the Early prc".” Frontiers of History in China Vol 7 (4): 551581.
24. Zhe Ji,. 2016. “"Comrade Zhao Puchu: Bodhisattva under the Red Flag".” In Making Saints in Modern China , edited by Ownby David,, Goossaert Vincent,, and Zhe Ji, pp. 312348. New York: Oxford University Press.
25. Jia Jinhua. 2006. The Hongzhou School of Chan Buddhism in Eighth- through Tenth-Century China . Albany: State University of New York Press.
26. Jianan 鍳安. 1955. "“Chanzong de sixiang yu fengfan xuwan” 禪宗的思想與風範 續完 (Chan Buddhism: Thought and style)". Xiandai foxue Vol 5 (58): 1620.
27. Jiang Weiqiao, 蔣维喬. [1952] 2008. “"Ye Xuyun dashi” 謁虚雲大師 (My visit to master Xuyun)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 7: 162163.
28. Jiechen, 戒塵. [n.d.] 2008. “"Wo Yu Xuyun Shangzuo” 我與虚雲上座 (Xuyun and i)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 7: 152155.
29. Jinghui 淨慧, ed. 2008. Xuyun lao heshang quanji 虛雲老和尚全集(Works of Xuyun). Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou guji chubanshe.
30. Jiqun 濟群. 2000. "“Fujian conglin mantan” 福建叢林漫談 (Lives in monasteries in Fujian)". Jiqun fashi zhuye 濟群法師主頁 (Ven. Jiqun’s website). www.jiqun.com/jianjie.htm. Accessed March 20, 2016.
31. Juzan, 巨贊. [1941] 2008. "“Zenyang chuzhi miaochan” 怎樣處治寺產 (How to handle temple property)". In Juzan fashi quanji 巨贊法師全集 (Works of Juzan), edited by Zhe Zhu 朱哲, 2: 734735. Shanghai: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
32. Juzan 巨贊. 1950. "“Yinian lai gongzuo de zibai xuwan” 一年来工作的自白續完 (A self-examination of what we have done this year: Conclusion)". Xiandai foxue Vol 1 (2): 2024.
33. Juzan 巨贊. 1951. "“Cong canjia Shanghai jiaoqu tugai gongzuo dedao de yidian renshi xuwan” 從參加上海郊區土改工作得到的一點認識續完 (What we have learned from our participation in land reform in the Shanghai area)". Xiandai foxue Vol 2 (2): 9.
34. Juzan 巨贊 (Huian). 1952a. "“Duiyu fojiaojie nei yixie bu tuodang de yanlun de shangque shang” 對於佛教界一些不妥當的言論的商榷上 (My response to some incorrect views in the Buddhist community)". Xiandai foxue Vol 2 (11): 37.
35. Juzan 巨贊 (Huian). 1952b. “"Guanui xin de daolu” 關於新的道路 (On the new path)". Xiandai foxue Vol 2(9): 57.
36. Juzan, 巨贊 (Huian). [1952] 2008a. "“Guanyu xin de daolu” 關於新的道路 (On the new path)". In Juzan fashi quanji , edited by Zhe Zhu, Vol 2: 803806.
37. Juzan, 巨贊 (Huian). [1952] 2008b. "“Luetan fojiao de qiantu” 略談佛教的前途 (A brief discussion on Buddhists’ future)". In Juzan fashi quanji , edited by Zhe Zhu, Vol 2: 807811.
38. Juzan 巨贊. 1956. "“Chanxiu de yiliao zuoyong yu qi keneng fasheng de shengli he xinlie xianxiang” 禪修的醫療作用及其可能發生的生理和心理現象 (The medical effects of meditation and possible psychological and physiological phenomena induced by meditative practices)". Xiandai foxue Vol 4: 712.
39. Kiely Jan,. 2016. “"The Communist Dismantling of Temple and Monastic Buddhism in Suzhou".” In Recovering Buddhism in Modern China , edited by Kiely Jan, and Jessup J. Brooks, pp. 216243. New York: Columbia University Press.
40. Kieschnick John. 1997. The Eminent Monk: Buddhist Ideals in Medieval Chinese Hagiography . Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
41. Leguan, 樂觀. [n.d.] 2008. “"Xuyun heshang yinxiangji” 虚雲和尚印象記 (My impression of Xuyun)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 7: 3242.
42. Li Genyuan 李根源. 1981. Xuesheng nianlu 雪生年譜 (Xuesheng’s chronological autobiography). Taipei: Wenhai Chubanshe.
43. Mariani Paul. 2011. Church Militant: Bishop Kung and Catholic Resistance in Communist Shanghai . Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press.
44. McCarthy Susan. 2013. “"Serving Society, Repurposing the State: Religious Charity and Resistance in China".” China Journal Vol 70: 4872.
45. McRae John. 2003. Seeing through Zen: Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism . Berkeley: University of California Press.
46. McRae John, trans. 2008. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch: Translated from the Chinese of Tsung-Pao . Berkeley, ca: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research.
47. Mingzhen 明真. 1952. "“Chujia sengni de shengchan he chijie wenti” 出家僧尼的生產和持戒問題 (On precepts and production in the Buddhist monastic order)". Xiandai foxue Vol 2 (6): 1012
48. O’Brien Kevin. 1996. “"Rightful Resistance".” World Politics Vol 49 (2): 3155.
49. Peterson Anna. 1997. Martyrdom and the Politics of Religion: Progressive Catholicism in El Salvador’s Civil War . Albany: State University of New York Press.
50. Poceski Mario. 2007. Ordinary Mind as the Way: The Hongzhou School and the Growth of Chan Buddhism . New York: Oxford University Press.
51. Poceski Mario. 2015. The Records of Mazu and the Making of Classical Chan Literature . New York: Oxford University.
52. Qixian, 齊賢. 2008."“Qixian laoshi huiyi xuyun lao heshang diandi” 齊賢老師回憶虚雲老和尚點滴 [Teacher Qixian’s recollection of Xuyun]". In JinghuiVol 2008, 7469479.
53. Scott James. 1990. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Scripts . New Haven, ct: Yale University Press.
54. Shengkai 聖凱. 2000. "“Lun Zhongguo fojiao dui shengchan zuowu taidu de zhuanbian” 論中國佛教對生產作務的轉變 (The evolution of Buddhist attitudes to production and work in Chinese history)". Fayin 法音 (Voice of Dharma)Vol 8: 2430.
55. Sutton Florin Giripescu. 1991. Existence and Enlightenment in the Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra: A Study in the Ontology and Epistemology of the Yogācāra School of Mahayana Buddhism . Albany: State University of New York Press.
56. Tingxiang, 廷祥. [1956] 2008. “"Yunjushan jinkuang” 雲居山近况 (Current situation of Yujunshan)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 6: 366.
57. Tiwald Justin,, and Van Norden Bryan W., eds. 2014. "“Recorded Sayings of Zhaozhou.” Translated by James Green". In Later Chinese Philosophy, Han Dynasty to the 20th Century , pp. 108109. Indianapolis, in: Hackett.
58. Vala Carsten,, and O’Brien Kevin,. 2008. “"Recruitment to Protestant House Churches".” In Popular Protest in China , edited by O’Brien Kevin, pp. 108125. Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press.
59. Wang Xingguo 王興國. 1996. Mao Zedong yu fojiao 毛澤東與佛教 (Mao Zedong and Buddhism). Beijing: Zhongguo shuji chubanshe.
60. Welch Holmes. 1972. Buddhism under Mao . Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press.
61. “"Wenti shangtao"” 問題商討 (Question-and-answer section). 1951. Xiandai foxue Vol 1(12): 2324.
62. Wu Jiang. 2011. Enlightenment in Dispute: The Emergence of Chan Buddhism in Seventeenth-Century China . New York: Oxford University Press.
63. Xu Xunming, 徐孫銘 and Quanzhong Wang 王傳宗. 2002. Hunan fojiaoshi 湖南佛教史 (The history of Buddhism in Hunan). Changsha: Hunan remin chubanshe.
64. Xue Yu. 2009. “"Buddhist Contribution to the Socialist Transformation of Buddhism in China: Activities of Ven. Juzan during 1949–1953".” The Journal of Global Buddhism, noteVol 2. www.globalbuddhism.org/10/yu09.htm. Accessed March 15, 2016.
65. Xue Yu., 2010. “"Buddhists in China During the Korean War, 1951–53".” In Buddhist Warfare , edited by Jerryson Michael, and Juergensmeyer Mark, pp. 131156. New York: Oxford University Press.
66. Xue Yu., 2016. “"Buddhist Efforts for the Reconciliation of Buddhism and Marxism in the Early Years of the People’s Republic of China".” In Recovering Buddhism in Modern China , edited by Kiely Jan, and Brooks Jessup J., pp. 177215. New York: Columbia University Press.
67. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1943] 2008. “"Da Jianggong wenfa shu” 答蔣公問法書 (My reply to Mr. Jiang’s questions about Buddhism)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 1: 180187.
68. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1951] 2008. “"Zhi Ruyuan xianzhengfu han” 致乳源縣政府函 (To the government of Ruyuan county)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 2: 82.
69. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1952] 2008a. “"Fojiaotu yinggai tuanjie qilai baowei shiejie heping” 佛教徒應該團結起來保衛世界和平 (All Buddhists should get united to safeguard world peace)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 1: 206207.
70. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1952] 2008b. "“Zai Hangzhou shi fojiao zhuyuan shejie heping fahui shang jianghua” 在杭州市佛教祝愿世界和平法會上講話 (A speech delivered in the Pray-for-World-Peace Dharma Meeting in Hangzhou)". In Xuyun quanji , edited by Jinghui, Vol 1: 215216.
71. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1952] 2008c. “"Zhi Li Weihan buzhang shu” 致李维漢部長書 (My letter to Li Weian)". In Jinghui 2008, Vol 2: 83.
72. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1953] 2008. “"Shanghai yufosi chanqi kaishi” 上海玉佛寺禪七開示 (The Dharma lecture delivered at Yufosi)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 1: 216246.
73. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1955] 2008a. “"Mofa sengtu zhi shuaixiang” 末法僧徒的衰相 (The degeneration of monks and nuns during the age of the end of Dharma)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 5: 232235.
74. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1955] 2008b. “"Yijiu wuwu nian yunjushan jieqi kaishi” 一九五五年雲居山戒期開示 (A Dharma lecture delivered during the precept ordination in 1955)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 1: 328342.
75. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1955] 2008c. “"Yunjushan fangbian kaishi” 雲居山開示 (Lectures delivered in Yunjushan)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 1: 250327.
76. Xuyun, 虚雲. [1958] 2008. “"Yijiu wuba nian jiuyue shiliu ri yunjushan jizhong biaotang” 一九五八年九月十六日集眾表堂 (A lecture delivered on October 19, 1958)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 1: 354358.
77. Xuyun, 虚雲 and Xuelü Cen, 岑學呂. [1953–1959] 2008. “"Xuyun nianpu” 虛雲年譜 [The chronological autobiography of Xuyun]". In Jinghui 2008, vol. Vol 5.
78. Yampolsky Philip, trans. 1978. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch . New York: Columbia University Press.
79. Yicheng, 一塵. [1991] 2008. “"Xuyun heshang zhuan” 虚雲和尚傳 (The biography of Xuyun)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 6: 214250.
80. Yifa. 2002. The Origins of Buddhist Monastic Codes in China: Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui . Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
81. Ruzhou Zhang. 張汝舟 1952. “"Women de shiye bi Longshu, Wuzhu geng weida” 我們的事業比龍樹,無著更偉大 (Our accomplishments are greater than those of Longshu and Wuzhuo)". Xiandai foxue Vol 2 (23): 31.
82. Zheng Songying 鄭頌英. 1954. "“Keyu suibi” 課餘隨筆 (Random thoughts)". Juexun 覺訊 (The Awakening Monthly)Vol 8 (12): 10.
83. “"Zhongguo fojiao xiehui chengli huiyi chuanda tigang” 中國佛教協會成立會議傳達提綱 (The agenda developed at the inaugural conference of the Buddhist Association of China)". 1953. Xiandai foxue Vol 6: 78.
84. Zhu Huaping, 祝華平. [1954] 2008. “"Xuyun lao heshang zai yunjushan jiemao jilue” 虚雲老和尚 在雲居山結茅記略 (Master Xuyun’s thatched hut in Yunjushan)". In JinghuiVol 2008, 6: 352354.
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/22143955-00402004
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/22143955-00402004
2017-11-30
2018-06-25

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Review of Religion and Chinese Society — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation