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THE BARK OF THE LATE TRIASSIC ARAUCARIOXYLON ARIZONICUM TREE FROM PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK, ARIZONA

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This paper contains a description of the only known non-banded bark in the geologic record. The bark is attached to a branch of the Araucarioxylon arizonicum tree that was found recently in the Late Triassic Chinle Formation (~ 220 Mya) in Arizona. In the fossil the vascular cylinder is almost totally enclosed in rough bark 2–11 mm in thickness. The inner bark is less than 1 mm thick and comprises a very narrow zone of presumed phloem containing infrequent fibers. The outer bark varies in thickness up to 10 mm, and consists of curving lenses of sequent periderm free of both dilation tissue and resin canals but is quite unlike the banded bark of Araucaria heterophylla. Wide zones of very thin-walled rectangular parenchyma cells arranged in radial files and groups of thin-walled spongy parenchyma, and small clusters as well as solitary sclerenchyma occur in the rhytidome. The vascular cambium contains 1–4 fusiform cells per radial file. Uniseriate rays are common in the secondary xylem and extend to the cambial zone. Small (1 mm in diameter), simple tunnels in the bark and wood indicate that the branch was attacked by phytophagous insects. A possible petrified beetle larva similar in form and size to Anobium is associated with these tunnels.

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/content/journals/10.1163/22941932-90000371
2004-01-01
2016-12-08

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