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Tori in wood of Osmanthus americanus, Daphne odora, Celtis occidentalis and Ulmus alata were tested for lignins using KMnO4 staining in conjunction with TEM, and acriflavine staining in concert with CLSM. It was hypothesized that impregnation with lignin could explain torus survival during cytoplasmic apoptosis. KMnO4 staining indicated torus lignification in all four woods, whereas only Osmanthus and Daphne tested positive for lignin with acriflavine. Tori in Celtis and Ulmus showed some evidence of partial breakdown during cell maturation, which might expose non-lignin sites for KMnO4 binding and thus produce spurious results. The acriflavine data correlate with developmental studies in which torus ontogeny occurs by one method in Osmanthus and Daphne and by another method in Celtis and Ulmus.


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