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Anatomical and macroscopic features of the bark are described for the Cupressaceae indigenous to southern South America: Austrocedrus chilensis, Fitzroya cupressoides and Pilgerodendron uviferum. Macroscopically there are two different types: 1) with rather deep longitudinal and transverse fissures, and short ridges or scales varying in adherence (Austrocedrus); and 2) with deep fissures, and elongate and wide ridges, which contain the rhytidome accumulated over several years (Fitzroya and Pilgerodendron). The pattern of the secondary phloem of the three species studied agrees closely with that of the other genera of Cupressaceae, but there are diagnostic differences as well: arrangement of the fibre rows, fibre types, frequency of resin ducts and the ray height. Pilgerodendron uviferum shows rays with erect marginal cells, similar to Strasburger cells, whereas ray sclereids in the fibre crossing zones were only observed in Austrocedrus. Resin ducts are present in Austrocedrus and Fitzroya. The main characteristics are used for an identification key. Anatomical relations with other genera of the family are discussed.


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