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Wood Anatomy of Elm (Ulmus) and Hackberry (Celtis) Species Native to the United States

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Wood anatomy of Ulmus and Celtis species (Ulmaceae) native to the United States is described. Ulmus differs from ring-porous species of Celtis in ray structure, crystallocation, and colour and fluorescence of water extracts. The soft elms/non-winged bark species (Ulmus americana and Ulmus rubra) differ from the hard elms/winged bark species (U. alata, U. crassifolia, U. serotina, and U. thomasii) in density, earlywood pore diameter, and appearance of crystal-containing axial parenchyma. Some species of hard elm can be distinguished from one another by a combination of characters: water extract colour and fluorescence, earlywood pore diameter and spacing. The anatomy of ring-porous species of Celtis is unifonn, except that in C. reticulata earlywood pores have a smaller radial diameter than the other species. Celtis pallida is diffuse-porous and resembles other diffuse-porous species of the genus. Vessel element lengths are similar for all species within these two genera regardless of habitat.


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