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Wood Anatomy of the Hippocrateoideae (Celastraceae)

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In this paper the wood anatomy of the subfarnily Hippocrateoideae of the Celastraceae is treated. Halle's division (1986, 1990) of the subfarnily into four tribes, chiefly based on material of tropical Africa: viz. Salacieae, Campylostemoneae, Helictonemeae and Hippocrateae is followed. In a recent issue of the Flora of the Guianas the Hippocrateaceae - there treated as aseparate farnily - were divided into Hippocrateoideae and Salacioideae. This bipartition was reflected in the wood structure of the genera studied (Mennega 1994). Here the wood structure of all genera worldwide (24), except the Asian genus Arnicratea, is described. It appeared that again a subdivision into two distinct anatomical groups could be made, with the three last tribes mentioned above showing the same characteristic structure as found before in New World Hippocrateae/Hippocrateoideae. The most important features of this group are the presence of very wide and very high rays, in a number of genera with unlignified ray cells at the growth ring border, the absence of included phloem tissue, and in many species an intruding bark resulting in an indented wood pattern in stern cross sections or even an intricate pattern of deep furrows. The Salacieae/Salacioideae on the other hand are characterized by narrow, not exceptionally high rays, absence of unlignified ray cells, the occurrence of septate fibres in a parenchyma-like distribution, and often by the presence of included phloem tissue, either as isolated strands or more often as conspicuous concentric bands, or as irregular bands with radial connections. Features present in all genera are: vessels with simple perforation plates, preponderance of solitary vessels, wide and narrow vessels distributed at random, alternate pitting; fibretracheids, and libriform nonseptate and septate fibres present; axial parenchyma scanty paratracheal or as rare isolated strands; rays heterogeneous, the cell types irregularly distributed, rhombic crystals numerous, often in characteristic radial distribution. Campylostemon, considered in the past by some taxonornists as belonging in Celastraceae or as intermediate between Hippocrateaceae and Celastraceae, closely resembles Hippocrateae in its wood anatomy. And it is especially this group that by its characteristic features -like the wide rays - is more different from Celastraceae in general than Salacieae, which have several features in common with genera of Celastraceae.


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