Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Sustainable Livestock Farming as Normative Practice

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Philosophia Reformata

We argue that an understanding of livestock farming as normative practice clarifies how sustainability is to be understood in livestock farming. The sustainability of livestock farming is first approached by investigating its identity. We argue that the economic aspect qualifies and the formative aspect founds the livestock farming practice. Observing the normativity related to these aspects will be the first task for the livestock farmer. In addition, we can distinguish conditioning norms applicable to the livestock farming practice which should be observed for competent performance of the practice. Failing to do justice to this normativity might affect the practice’s sustainability only in the long term—this is especially the case with conditioning norms. Motives to observe normativity have, therefore, the character of an ultimate conviction regarding the flourishing of the practice. Finally, the sustainability of the livestock farming practice crucially depends on the broader food system of which it is part.

Affiliations: 1: Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, ; 2: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, ; 3: Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands,


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Altieri M.A. (2012). The Scaling up of Agroecology: Spreading the Hope for Food Sovereignty and Resiliency. A Contribution to Discussions at Rio+20 on Issues at the Interface of Hunger, Agriculture, Environment and Social Justice . socla.
2. Altieri M.A.,, and Toledo V.M. (2011). "The Agroecological Revolution in Latin America: Rescuing Nature, Ensuring Food Sovereignty and Empowering Peasants". The Journal of Peasant Studies Vol 38 (3), pp. 587612. doi10.1080/03066150.2011.582947.
3. Andreasen S.N.,, Sandøe P.,, Waiblinger S.,, and Forkman B., (2014). "Farmer Attitude Affects the Overall Welfare of Dairy Cows". In: L. Mounier, and I. Veissier, eds., Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group Level: wafl 2014, Clermont-Ferrand, France, September 3–5, 2014 , Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, p. 241.
4. Boivin X.,, Lensink J.,, Tallet C.,, and Veissier I. (2003). "Stockmanship and Farm Animal Welfare". Animal Welfare Vol 12 (4), pp. 479492.
5. Capone R.,, El Bilali H.,, Debs P.,, Cardone G.,, and Driouech N. (2014). "Food System Sustainability and Food Security: Connecting the Dots". Journal of Food Security Vol 2 (1), pp. 1322. doi10.12691/jfs-2-1-2.
6. Chaplin J. (2007). "‘Public Justice’ as a Critical Political Norm". Philosophia Reformata Vol 72 (2), pp. 130150. doi10.1163/22116117-90000415.
7. De Lauwere C.C.,, and De Rooij S.J.G. (2010). Dé ondernemer bestaat niet; melkveehouders en varkenshouders over hun visie op dierenwelzijn en andere duurzaamheidsaspecten . Research report 10-006. Den Haag: lei Wageningen ur.
8. De Rooij S.J.G.,, De Lauwere C.C.,, and Van der Ploeg J.D. (2010). "Entrapped in Group Solidarity? Animal Welfare, the Ethical Positions of Farmers and the Difficult Search for Alternatives". Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning Vol 12 (4), pp. 341361. doi10.1080/1523908X.2010.528882.
9. Dooyeweerd H., (1969). A New Critique of Theoretical Thought. Volume 2: The General Theory of the Modal Spheres . Translated by H. de Jongste, and D.H. Freeman. Philadelphia: The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company.
10. Dower N., (2008). "Agricultural Intensification, Environmental Ethics and Sustainability: Some Ethical Observations". In: P.B. Thompson, ed., The Ethics of Intensification: Agricultural Development and Cultural Change , Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., pp. 157166.
11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (fao). (2013). Climate-Smart Agriculture: Sourcebook . Rome: fao.
12. Geertsema H.G. (1970). "Transcendentale openheid (ii)". Philosophia Reformata Vol 35 (3–4), pp. 132155. doi10.1163/22116117-90001212.
13. Glas G. (2016). "Reinventing Professionalism—Public Responsibility in Current Medicine and Psychiatry". Paper presented at the International Conference “Christianity and the Future of Our Societies,” Leuven, Belgium, August 2016.
14. Goudzwaard B., (1979). Capitalism and Progress. A Diagnosis of Western Society . Translated by Josina Van Nuis Zylstra. Toronto, on: Wedge Publishing Foundation; Grand Rapids, mi: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
15. Goudzwaard B. (2008). Toward Reformation in Economics . Toronto: Institute for Christian Studies.
16. Graafland J. (2015). En God schiep. Over dieren en rentmeesterschap . Heerenveen: Royal Jongbloed.
17. Griffioen S. (2012). "On Worldviews". Philosophia Reformata Vol 77 (1), pp. 1956. doi10.1163/22116117-90000521.
18. Hansen J.W. (1996). "Is Agricultural Sustainability a Useful Concept?" Agricultural Systems Vol 50 (2), pp. 117143. doi10.1016/0308-521X(95)00011-S.
19. Hemsworth P.H. (2003). "Human–animal Interactions in Livestock Production". Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 81 (3), pp. 185198. doi10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00280-0.
20. Hoogland J.,, and Jochemsen H. (2000). "Professional Autonomy and the Normative Structure of Medical Practice". Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics Vol 21 (5), 457475. doi10.1023/A:1009925423036.
21. Jochemsen H. (2006). "Normative Practices as an Intermediate between Theoretical Ethics and Morality". Philosophia Reformata Vol 71 (1), pp. 96112. doi10.1163/22116117-90000377.
22. Jochemsen H., (2012). "Towards Sustainable Food Production: A Normative Analysis of Agrarian Practice". In: L. Botes,, R. Jongeneel,, and S. Strijbos, eds., Reintregrating Technology and Economy in Human Life and Society , Bloemfontein: iide; Amsterdam: Rozenberg, pp. 121136.
23. Jochemsen H. (2013). "An Ethical Foundation for Careful Animal Husbandry". njas - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences Vol 66, pp. 5563. doi10.1016/j.njas.2013.05.011.
24. Jochemsen H.,, and Glas G. (1997). Verantwoord medisch handelen. Proeve van een christelijke medische ethiek . Lindeboom Reeks 10. Amsterdam: Buijten & Schipperheijn.
25. Jongeneel R. (2016). "Economic Normativity: The Case of the Budget Constraint". Paper presented at the International Conference “Christianity and the Future of Our Societies,” Leuven, Belgium, August 2016.
26. Kee B., (1996). "Filosofie van de economie". In: R. van Woudenberg, ed., Kennis en werkelijkheid , Amsterdam: Buijten & Schipperheijn; Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok, pp. 267292.
27. Korthals M. (2001). "Ethical Dilemmas in Sustainable Agriculture". International Journal of Food Science & Technology Vol 36 (8), pp. 813820. doi10.1046/j.1365-2621.2001.00533.x.
28. Le Mare Ann. (2008). "The Impact of Fair Trade on Social and Economic Development: A Review of the Literature". Geography Compass Vol 2 (6), pp. 19221942. doi10.1111/j.1749-8198.2008.00171.x.
29. Massink H. (2013). Blijvend thuis op aarde? Een historisch, systematisch en praktisch onderzoek naar de mogelijkheid van operationalisering van het concept duurzaamheid, in het bijzonder voor de landbouw . Delft: Eburon.
30. McMichael P. (2009a). "Banking on Agriculture: A Review of the World Development Report 2008". Journal of Agrarian Change Vol 9 (2), pp. 235246. doi10.1111/j.1471-0366.2009.00203.x.
31. McMichael P. (2009b). "A Food Regime Analysis of the ‘World Food Crisis.’" Agriculture and Human Values Vol 26 (4), p. 281. doi10.1007/s10460-009-9218-5.
32. Moore G. (2002). "On the Implications of the Practice-Institution Distinction: MacIntyre and the Application of Modern Virtue Ethics to Business". Business Ethics Quarterly Vol 12 (1), pp. 1932.
33. Rademaker C.J.,, Glas G.,, and Jochemsen H., (2014). "Doing Justice to the Nature of the Animal: Reformational Philosophy and the Animal Welfare Debate". In: L. Mounier, and I. Veissier, eds., Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group Level: wafl 2014, Clermont-Ferrand, France, September 3–5, 2014 , Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, p. 82.
34. Rollin B.E.,, and Thompson P.B., (2012). "Perspectives on Emergence of Contemporary Animal Agriculture in the Mid-Twentieth Century: The Decline of Husbandry and the Rise of the Industrial Model". In: W.G. Pond,, F.W. Bazer,, and B.E. Rollin, eds., Animal Welfare in Animal Agriculture: Husbandry, Stewardship, and Sustainability in Animal Production , Boca Raton, fl: crc Press, pp. 312.
35. Schipper F. (1998). "Rethinking Efficiency". In: The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy . Boston, ma. Available at The Paideia Project Online:
36. Schuurman E. (1987). "Crisis in de landbouw. Een reformatorisch-wijsgerig perspectief". Inaugural address, September 24, 1987. Wageningen: Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen.
37. Špinka M. (2006). "How Important Is Natural Behaviour in Animal Farming Systems?" Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 100 (1–2), pp. 117128. doi10.1016/j.applanim.2006.04.006.
38. Špinka M.,, and Wemelsfelder F., (2011). "Environmental Challenge and Animal Agency". In: M.C. Appleby,, J.A. Mench,, I.A.S. Olsson,, and B.O. Hughes, eds., Animal Welfare , 2nd ed., Wallingford: cab International, pp. 2744.
39. Stafleu F.R.,, and De Greef K.H. (2004). "Boerenethiek". Eigen waarden als basis voor een “nieuwe” ethiek. Een inventarisatie. Utrecht: Ethics Institute, Utrecht University.
40. Steinfeld H.,, Gerber P.,, Wassenaar T.,, Castel V.,, Rosales M.,, and De Haan C. (2006). Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options . Rome: fao.
41. Theunissen B. (2012). "Breeding for Nobility or for Production? Cultures of Dairy Cattle Breeding in the Netherlands, 1945–1995". Isis Vol 103 (2), pp. 278309. doi10.1086/666356.
42. Thompson P.B. (1997). "Sustainability as a Norm". Techné: Technology in Culture and Concept Vol 2 (2), pp. 7594.
43. Thompson P.B. (2010). The Agrarian Vision: Sustainability and Environmental Ethics . Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky.
44. Thompson P.B.,, and Nardone A. (1999). "Sustainable Livestock Production: Methodological and Ethical Challenges". Livestock Production Science Vol 61 (2–3), pp. 111119. doi10.1016/S0301-6226(99)00061-5.
45. Van der Ploeg J.D. (2003). The Virtual Farmer: Past, Present and Future of the Dutch Peasantry . Assen: Uitgeverij Van Gorcum.
46. Verkerk M.J.,, Hoogland J.,, Van der Stoep J.,, and De Vries M.J. (2007). Denken, ontwerpen, maken: Basisboek techniekfilosofie . Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Boom.
47. Waiblinger S.,, Menke C.,, and Coleman G. (2002). "The Relationship between Attitudes, Personal Characteristics and Behaviour of Stockpeople and Subsequent Behaviour and Production of Dairy Cows". Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 79 (3), pp. 195219. doi10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00155-7.
48. Yee W.M.S.,, Yeung R.M.W.,, and Morris J. (2005). "Food Safety: Building Consumer Trust in Livestock Farmers for Potential Purchase Behaviour". British Food Journal Vol 107 (11), pp. 841854. doi10.1108/00070700510629788.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Philosophia Reformata — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation