Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Volunteering in Community Sports Associations: A Literature Review

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Voluntaristics Review

This review paper focuses on volunteers in community sports associations (CSAs). Such associations are a major context of sports volunteering across Europe, Canada and Australia—the countries in which a multitude of sports clubs are represented by governing bodies of sport. Their importance is not only in the large numbers of volunteers involved but also in the benefits of such associations to society. The clearest of these is the provision of opportunities to take part in sport, at a cost subsidized by the efforts of volunteers and thus contributing to physical health. However, the benefits extend more broadly to the quality of life and the rewards the volunteers themselves receive from association. Many community sports associations have a significant number of members who, while they do not actually play sport themselves, provide opportunities for others and also enjoy the social rewards of membership.The review is structured in the following sections:Introduction.The number of sports clubs, club membership, and volunteering.Explaining a trend toward individual participation in sport and volunteering, and a reduction in the number of CSAs.Conceptualizing community sports associations and volunteering.Motivations of sports volunteers.Challenges facing community sports clubs’ volunteers and leaders.Management and leadership of volunteers in CSAs: Applying a rational systems approach, and the pros and cons of formality.Community sports associations and social capital.The relationship between CSAs and event volunteering.Conclusions.Any one section can be read independently, although each is presented in a logical sequence and cross-references the others. Thus, the aim of this broad-ranging review is to introduce the reader to community sports associations as an example of small, volunteer-led associations, and to make links between academic theory in this area and the more general study of volunteering. The breadth of the review allows readers to follow-up supporting references on individual topics. The author’s extensive experience, primarily of England and Europe, has inevitably led to more examples being drawn from these areas; however, broader international work is also incorporated. It is hoped this review will stimulate readers’ thinking about volunteering in their own country.

Affiliations: 1: Management School, University of Sheffield SheffieldEngland, UK G.Nichols@sheffield.ac.uk

10.1163/24054933-12340015
/content/journals/10.1163/24054933-12340015
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/24054933-12340015
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Adams A. Houlihan B., Green M."Sports development and social capital" Routledge handbook of sports development 2011 London Routledge 72 86
2. Adler P. S., Borys B."Two types of bureaucracy: Enabling and coercive. The impact of formalisation on volunteers" Administrative Science Quarterly 1996Vol 41 1 61 89 [Crossref]
3. Alexander A."A model of volunteer intention at a mega-event, the London 2012 Olympics" 2013 Ph.D. Thesis, University of Missouri-Columbia
4. Alexander A., Sung-Bum K., Dae-Young K."Segmenting volunteers by motivation in the 2012 London Olympic Games" Tourism Management 2015Vol 47 1 10 [Crossref]
5. Allison M. Sport clubs in Scotland 2001 Edinburgh SportScotland Report 75
6. Argyris C. Understanding organizational behaviour 1960 Homewood, IL Dorsey Press
7. Auld C."Changes in professional and volunteer relationships. Implications for managers in the leisure industry" Australian Journal of Leisure and Recreation 1994Vol 4 14 21
8. Auld C."Professionalisation of Australian sport administration: The effects on organizational decision-making" European Journal of Sport Management 1997Vol 4 17 39
9. Auld C. Nicholson M., Hoye M. R."Voluntary sports clubs. The potential for the development of social capital" Sport and social capital 2008 Oxford Butterworth-Heinemann 143 164
10. Baines S., Hardill I."‘At least I can do something’: The work of volunteering in a community beset by worklessness" Social Policy and Society 2008Vol 7 3 307 317 [Crossref]
11. Baldamus W. Efficiency and effort 1961 London Tavistock
12. Balduck A., Rossem A., Buelens M."Identifying competencies of volunteer board members of community sports clubs" Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 2010Vol 39 2 213 235 [Crossref]
13. Baron S., Field J., Schuller T. Social capital—critical perspectives 2000 Oxford Oxford University Press
14. Bartkus V. O., Davis J. H. Social capital: Reaching out, reaching in 2009 Cheltenham Edward Elgar
15. Bauman Z. Liquid life 2005 Cambridge Polity Press
16. Bekkers R."Intergenerational transmission of volunteering" Acta Sociologica 2007Vol 50 2 99 114 [Crossref]
17. Billis D. Organising public and voluntary agencies 1993 London Routledge Cited in Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A., Haugen, J., & Miene, P. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: A functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1516–1530.
18. Blackshaw T. Leisure 2010 London Routledge
19. Blackshaw T., Long J."What’s the big idea? A critical exploration of the concept of social capital and its incorporation into leisure policy discourse" Leisure Studies 2005Vol 24 3 239 258 [Crossref]
20. Bloyce D., Smith A."The Olympic and Paralympic effect on public policy: Use and misuse" International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics 2012Vol 4 3 301 305 [Crossref]
21. Bourdieu P."The forms of capital. (1986)." Cultural theory: An anthology 2011 81 93 Cited in Baron, S., Field, J., and Schuller, T. (Eds.), (2000). Social capital—critical perspectives. Oxford University Press.
22. Bowers M. T., Chalip L., Green C. Houlihan B., Green M."Beyond the façade: Youth sport development in the United States and the illusion of synergy" Handbook of sports development 2011 London Routledge 173 183
23. Breuer C., Hoekman R., Nagel S., Werff H. v. d. Sports clubs in Europe. A cross-national comparative perspective 2015 Basel, Switzerland Springer 423
24. Brodie E., Hughes T., Jochum V., Miller S., Ockenden N., Warburton D. Pathways through participation: What creates and sustains active citizenship? 2011 ncvo / ivr / Involve. Retrieved from
25. Brudney J., Meijs L. C. P. M."It ain’t natural: Towards a new natural resource conceptualization for volunteer management" Non-Profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 2009 doi:10.1177/0899764009333828
26. Burden W., Church A. G. Li Ming, Macintosh E., Bravo G. A."Sport in North America" International Sport Management 2012 Champaign, IL Human Kinetics
27. Burt R. Brokerage and social closure: An introduction to social capital 2005 Oxford Oxford University Press
28. Caldwell S. D., Farmer S. M., Fedor B. D."The influence of age on volunteer contributions in a non-profit organization" Journal of Organizational Behavior 2008Vol 29 3 311 333 [Crossref]
29. Camerer C. F., Loewenstein G., Rabin M. Advances in behavioral economics 2011 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press
30. Cashman R. The bitter-sweet awakening: The legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games 2006 Petersham, NSW Walla Walla Press
31. Cnaan R., Handy F., Wadsworth M."Defining who is a volunteer" Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 1996Vol 25 364 383 [Crossref]
32. Coalter F."Sport and recreation in the United Kingdom: Flow with the flow or buck the trends?" Managing Leisure 1999Vol 4 24 39 [Crossref]
33. Coalter F. A wider social role for sport: Who’s keeping the score? 2007 London Routledge
34. Coffé H., Geys B."Toward an empirical characterization of bridging and bonding social capital" Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 2007aVol 36 1 121 139 [Crossref]
35. Coffé H., Geys B."Participation in bridging and bonding associations and civic attitudes: Evidence from Flanders" Voluntas 2007bVol 18 385 406 [Crossref]
36. Coffé H., Geys B."Measuring the bridging nature of voluntary organizations: The importance of association size" Sociology 2008Vol 42 2 357 369 [Crossref]
37. Coleman J. Foundations of social theory 1994 Cambridge, MA Belknap Press In: S. Baron, J. Field, & T. Schuller (Eds.) (2000), Social capital—critical perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press
38. Collins M., Holmes K., Slater A. Sport, leisure, culture and social capital: Discourse and practice 2007 Eastbourne Leisure Studies Association
39. Conway N., Briner R. B. Understanding psychological contracts at work 2005 Oxford Oxford University Press [Crossref]
40. Cullinane N., Dundon T."The psychological contract: A critical review" International Journal of Management Reviews 2006Vol 8 2 113 129 [Crossref]
41. Cuskelly G."Volunteer retention in community sport organisations" European Sport Management Quarterly 2004Vol 4 59 76 [Crossref]
42. Cuskelly G. Nichols G., Collins M."Volunteer participation trends in Australian sport" Volunteers in sports clubs 2005 Eastbourne Leisure Studies Association 86 104 lsa Publication No. 85
43. Cuskelly G. Nicholson M., Hoye M. R."Volunteering in community sport organizations; implications for social capital" Sport and social capital 2008 Oxford Elsevier 187 203
44. Cuskelly G., O’Brien W."Changing roles: Applying continuity theory to understanding the transition from playing to volunteering in community sport" European Sport Management Quarterly 2013Vol 13 54 75 [Crossref]
45. Cuskelly G., Harrington M., Stebbins R. A."Changing levels of organizational commitment amongst sport volunteers: A serious leisure approach" Loisir/Leisure 2003Vol 27 3–4 191 212 Special Issue: Volunteerism and Leisure
46. Cuskelly G., Taylor T., Hoye R., Darcy S."Volunteer management practices and volunteer retention: A human resource management approach" Sport Management Review 2006Vol 9 2 141 163 [Crossref]
47. Cyert R., March J. G. A behavioral theory of the firm 1992 2nd edn Cambridge, MA and Oxford Blackwell
48. Davis Smith J. The 1997 national survey of volunteering 1998 London National Centre for Volunteering
49. Dawson P., Downward P."The relationship between participation in sport and sport volunteering: An economic analysis" International Journal of Sport Finance 2013Vol 8 75 92
50. dcms "London 2012 meta-evaluation: Community Engagement Evidence Base" 2013 Retrieved from
51. Dean J."How structural factors promote instrumental motivations within youth volunteering: A qualitative analysis of volunteer brokerage" Voluntary Sector Review 2014Vol 5 2 231 247 [Crossref]
52. Dekker P., Halman L. The values of volunteering. Cross-cultural perspectives 2003 New York Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers
53. Dickson T. J., Benson A. M."London 2012 Games Makers: Towards redefining legacy" Policy: Creating a lasting legacy from the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games 2013 London Department for Culture, Media & Sport (DCMS) Series: Meta-evaluation of the impacts and legacy of the London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games
54. Dickson T. J., Benson A. M., Terwiel A. F."‘It’s all about the Games!’: 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games volunteers" Event Management: An International Journal 2013Vol 17 77 92 [Crossref]
55. Dickson T. J., Benson A. M., Terwiel A. F."Mega-event volunteers, similar or different? Vancouver 2010 vs London 2012" International Journal of Event and Festival Management 2014Vol 5 164 179 [Crossref]
56. DiMaggio P. J., Powell W. W."The Iron Cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organization fields" American Sociological Review 1983 AprilVol 48 147 160 [Crossref]
57. Doherty A. A profile of community sport volunteers 2005a Prepared for Parks and Recreation Ontario and Sport Alliance Ontario
58. Doherty A. Volunteer management in community sport clubs: A study of volunteers’ perceptions 2005b Prepared for Parks and Recreation Ontario and Sport Alliance of Ontario
59. Doherty A."The volunteer legacy of a major sport event" Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events 2009Vol 1 3 185 207 [Crossref]
60. Doherty A., Misener K. Nicholson M., Hoye M. R."Community sport networks" Sport and social capital 2008 Oxford Butterworth-Heinemann 114 141
61. Downward P., Ralston R."The sports development potential of sports event volunteering: Insights from the xvii Manchester Commonwealth Games" European Sports Management Quarterly 2006Vol 6 4 333 351 [Crossref]
62. Ecorys"Sizing the national governing body affiliated club market: A report for Sport England" 2015
63. Egli B., Schlesinger T., Nagel S."Expectation-based types of volunteers in Swiss sports clubs" Managing Leisure 2014Vol 19 359 375 Retrieved from [Crossref]
64. Eley D., Kirk D."Developing citizenship through sport: The impact of a sport-based volunteer programme on young sport leaders" Sport Education and Society 2002Vol 7 151 166 [Crossref]
65. Ellis Paine A., Malmersjo G., Stubbe W."Kortdurend Vrijwilligerswerk: Zegen of vloek? [Short-term volunteering: A curse or a blessing?]" Cited in Vrijwillige Inzet Onderzocht [Voluntary Effort Studied] 2007Vol 4 supplement 101 110
66. Enjolras B."The commercialization of voluntary sport organizations in Norway" Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 2002Vol 31 352 375 [Crossref]
67. Etzioni A. A comparative analysis of complex organizations 1975 Revised edn New York Free Press
68. European Commission"Special Eurobarometer 412 “Sport and physical activity”" 2014 Brussels European Commission 2014
69. European Parliament Volunteering and intergenerational solidarity 2011 Retrieved from
70. Evans E., Saxton J. The 21st century volunteer: A report on the changing face of volunteering in the 21st Century 2005 accessed April 16, 2009 Retrieved from Nfpsynergy:
71. Farmer S. M., Fedor D. B."Volunteer participation and withdrawal: A psychological contract perspective on the role of expectations and organizational support" Nonprofit Management and Leadership 1999Vol 9 4 349 367 [Crossref]
72. Gazley B., Brundney J."The purpose and perils of government—Nonprofit partnership" Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 2007Vol 36 3 389 415 [Crossref]
73. Gazzaniga Michael S. Who’s in charge: Free will and the science of the brain 2011 New York HarperCollins
74. Gershuny J. Time use surveys and the measurement of national wellbeing 2011 Oxford Centre for time-use Research
75. Girginov V. Girginov V."Governance of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games" The handbook of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, volume one: Making the Games 2012 Abingdon Routledge 30 144
76. Glucksmann M. Cottons and casuals: The gendered organisation of labour in time and space 2000 Durham Sociologypress
77. Glucksmann M."Shifting boundaries and interconnections: Extending the ‘total social organisation of labour’" Sociological Review 2005Vol 53 19 36 Reproduced in: L. Pettinger, J. Parry, R. Taylor, & M. Glucksmann (Eds.) (2005), A new sociology of work? (Sociological review monographs) (pp. 19–36). Oxford: Blackwell [Crossref]
78. Glucksmann M. A."Why ‘work’? Gender and the ‘total social organization of labour’" Gender, Work & Organization 1995Vol 2 2 63 75 [Crossref]
79. Glyptis S. Leisure and unemployment 1989 Milton Keynes Open University Press
80. Grainger S."Volunteering in rugby—creating a legacy from the Rugby World Cup 2016" 2016 PDF retrieved from
81. Gratton C., Taylor P. Sport and recreation: An economic analysis 1985 London E. and F. Spon
82. Gratton C., Taylor P. Government and the economics of sport 1991 London E and F Spon
83. Gratton C., Nichols G., Shibli S., Taylor P. Valuing volunteers in UK sport 1997 London Sports Council
84. Gratton C., Rowe N., Veal A. J."International comparisons of sports participation in European Countries: An update of the COMPASS Project" European Journal of Sport and Society 2011Vol 8 1/2 99 116 [Crossref]
85. Groom R., Taylor W., Nelson L. Volunteering insight: Report for Sport England March 2014 2014 London Sport England
86. Hagan J."The volunteer and the professional: Presence, development, policy and management" 2008 Dissertation completed as part requirement for the degree of MSc Heritage Tourism Development at University of Sunderland
87. Handy C. Understanding organizations 1985 London Penguin
88. Handy C. Understanding voluntary organizations 1990 London Penguin
89. Handy F., Brodeur N., Cnaan R."Summer on the island: Episodic volunteering" Voluntary Action 2006Vol 7 3 31 46
90. Harris S., Taylor M., Nichols G."Bowling even more alone: Trends toward individual and informal participation in sport" 2015 Presentation at European Association of Sport Management conference September
91. Hoekman R., van der Werff H., Nagel S., Breuer C. Breuer C., Hoekman R., Nagel S., v. d. Werff H."A cross-national comparative perspective on sport clubs in Europe" Sports clubs in Europe. A cross-national comparative perspective 2015 Basel, Switzerland Springer 419 435 [Crossref]
92. Hogg E."Constant, serial and trigger volunteers: Volunteering across the life-course and into older age" Voluntary Sector Review 2016Vol 7 2 169 190 [Crossref]
93. Hoggett P., Bishop J. The social organisation of leisure 1985 London Sports Council
94. Holmes K., Nichols G., Ralston R."“It’s a once-in-a-lifetime experience and opportunity—deal with it!”—Volunteer perceptions of the management of the volunteer experience at the London 2012 Olympic Games" Event Management 2017, forthcoming
95. Holt R. Sport and the British 1990 Oxford Oxford University Press [Crossref]
96. Hustinx L., Lammertyn F."Collective and reflexive styles of volunteering: A sociological modernization perspective" Voluntas 2003Vol 14 2 167 187 [Crossref]
97. Hustinx L., Cnaan A. R., Handy F."Navigating theories of volunteering: A hybrid map for a complex phenomenon" Journal of the Theory of Social Behaviour 2010Vol 40 4 410 434 [Crossref]
98. Ibsen B., Nichols G., Elmose-Østerlund K."Sports club policies in Europe. A comparison of the public policy context and historical origins of sports clubs across ten European countries" 2016 Odense University of Southern Denmark 2016. With: C. Breuer, E. Claes, J. Disch, S. Feiler, R. Llopis-Goig, J. Lucassen, S. Nagel, S. Perényi, M. Piatkowska, J. Scheerder, Ø. Seippel, H. Vandermeerschen, H. v. d. Werff, & J. Adler Zwahlen. Retrieved from
99. Ibsen B., Østerlund K., Laub T. Breuer C., Hoekman R., Nagel S., v. d. Werff H."Sports clubs in Denmark" Sports clubs in Europe. A cross-national comparative perspective 2015 Basel, Switzerland Springer 85 109 (2015) [Crossref]
100. Inglehart R., Basañez M., Caterberg G., Diez-Medrano J., Moreno A., Norris P., Siemienska R., Zuasnabar I. Changing human beliefs and values, 1981–2007: A cross-cultural sourcebook based on the world values surveys and European values studies 2010 Mexico City, Mexico, D. F Sigo XXI Editores
101. ivr (Institute for Volunteering Research) The value of giving a little time: Understanding the potential of micro-volunteering 2013 London Institute for Volunteering Research
102. Jeavons T. Young D., Hollister R., Hodgkinson V."The role of values: Management in religious organizations" Governing, leading, and managing nonprofit organizations 1993 San Francisco, CA Jossey Bass Wiley
103. Kahneman D. Thinking, fast and slow 2011 New York Farrar, Straus & Giroux
104. Kerwin S., Warner S., Walker M., Stevens J."Exploring sense of community among small-scale sport event volunteers" European Sport Management Quarterly 2015Vol 15 77 92 [Crossref]
105. Kim M., Trail G. T., Lim J., Kim Y. K."The role of psychological contract in intention to continue volunteering" Journal of Sport Management 2009Vol 23 5 549 573 [Crossref]
106. Lamprecht M., Fischer A., Stamm H."Sport Schweiz, 2014" Sportaktivitat and sportinteresse de schweizer bevolkerung 2014 Seismo, Zurich
107. Levinson H., Price C. R., Munden K. J., Solley C. M. Men, management and mental health 1962 Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press [Crossref]
108. Levitas R."The just’s umbrella: Austerity and the big society in coalition policy and beyond" Critical Social Policy 2012Vol 32 3 320 342 [Crossref]
109. Li Y., Savage M., Pickles A."Social capital and social exclusion in England and Wales (1972–1999)" British Journal of Sociology 2003Vol 54 4 497 526 [Crossref]
110. Liao-Troth M. A."Attitude differences between paid workers and volunteers" Nonprofit Management and Leadership 2001Vol 11 4 423 442 [Crossref]
111. Liao-Troth M. A."Are they here for the long haul? The effects of functional motives and personality factors on the psychological contracts of volunteers" Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 2005Vol 34 4 510 530 [Crossref]
112. Lockstone-Binney L., Holmes K., Shipway R., Smith K. A."Evaluating the volunteering infrastructure legacy of the Olympic Games: Sydney 2000 and London 2012" Final Report 2016
113. Lockstone-Binney L., Holmes K., Smith K., Baum T., Storer C."Are all my volunteers here to help out? Clustering event volunteers by their motivation" Event Management 2015Vol 19 4 461 477 [Crossref]
114. Low N., Butt S., Ellis Paine A., Davis Smith J. Helping out: A national survey of volunteering and charitable giving 2007 London Cabinet Office
115. Lyons M., Wijkstrom P., Clary G."Comparative studies of volunteering: What is being studied?" Voluntary Action 1998Vol 1 1 45 54
116. Macduff N. Episodic volunteering: Building the short-term volunteer program 1991 Walla Walla, Washington MBA Publishing
117. Macduff N. Brudney J."Societal changes and the rise of the episodic volunteer" Emerging Areas of Volunteering 2005 arnova Occasional Paper Series 1(2)
118. Maclean J., Hamm S."Motivation, commitment, and intentions of volunteers at a large Canadian sporting event" Leisure/Loisir 2007Vol 31 523 556 [Crossref]
119. Macleod D. I. Building character in the American boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA, and their forerunners, 1870–1920 1983 Madison, WI University of Wisconsin Press
120. Marta E., Pozzi M."Young people and volunteerism: A model of sustained volunteerism during the transition to adulthood" Journal of Adult Development 2008Vol 15 35 46 [Crossref]
121. Meijs L., Handy F., Cnaan R., Brudney J., Ascoli U., Ranade S., Hustinx L., Weber S., Weiss I. Dekker P., Halman L."All in the eyes of the beholder? Perceptions of volunteering across eight countries" The values of volunteering: cross cultural perspectives 2003 New York Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers 19 34 [Crossref]
122. Meijs L., Hoogstad E."New ways of managing volunteers: combining membership management and programme management" Voluntary Action 2001Vol 3 3 41 61
123. Morgan G. Images of organization 2006 3rd edn Newbury Park, CA Sage
124. Morrison E. W., Robinson S. L."When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops" Academy of Management Review 1997Vol 22 1 226 256
125. Musick M. A., Wilson J. Volunteers: A social profile 2008 Bloomington, IN Indiana University Press
126. Nesbit R., Rimes H. N., Smith D. H., Akhter S., Akingbola K., Domaradzka-Widla A., Kristmundsson O. H., Malunga C., Sasson U. Smith D. H., Stebbins R. A., Grotz J."Leadership and management of associations" Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations 2016 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan (ch. 25)
127. Nichols G."Stalwarts in sport" World Leisure 2005Vol 2 31 37 [Crossref]
128. Nichols G."Inequality and positional consumption—a fresh insight into debates in leisure studies on time pressures on leisure and volunteering, choosing a work/life balance and the nature of a ‘leisure’ society" Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events 2009Vol 1 3 270 275 [Crossref]
129. Nichols G."The psychological contract of volunteers—A new research agenda" Voluntas 2013Vol 24 4 986 1005 [Crossref]
130. Nichols G., King L."Redefining the recruitment niche for the Guide association in the United Kingdom" Leisure Sciences 1999Vol 21 4 307 320 [Crossref]
131. Nichols G., Holmes K., Baum T. Blackshaw T."Volunteering as leisure; leisure as volunteering" The Routledge international handbook of leisure studies 2013 London Routledge 456 467
132. Nichols G., Ojala E."Understanding the management of sports events volunteers through psychological contract theory" Voluntas International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 2009Vol 20 4 369 387 [Crossref]
133. Nichols G., Ralston R."Lessons from the volunteering legacy of the 2002 Commonwealth Games" Urban Studies 2012a JanuaryVol 49 1 165 180 [Crossref]
134. Nichols G., Ralston R."Volunteer management at the 2012 Olympic Games: A tension between ‘programme’ and ‘membership’ management styles" 2012b Problems, possibilities, promising practices: critical dialogues on the Olympic and Paralympic Games, Eleventh International Symposium for Olympic Research/ London, Ontario, Canada LA 84 foundation Retrieved from
135. Nichols G., Ralston R. Fleming S., Neil R., Hanton S., Wilson K."Volunteers in sport, and social inclusion: Manchester Event Volunteers" The research process in sport, exercise and health: The experiences of active researchers 2013 London Routledge 198 214
136. Nichols G., Ralston R. Girginov V."Volunteering for the Games" Handbook of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Volume two: Celebrating the Games 2014 London Routledge 53 70
137. Nichols G., Ralston R."The legacy costs of delivering the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games through regulatory capitalism" Leisure Studies 2015Vol 34 4 389 404 [Crossref]
138. Nichols G., Shepherd M."Volunteering in sport: the use of ratio analysis to analyse volunteering and participation" Managing Leisure 2006Vol 11 4 205 216 [Crossref]
139. Nichols G., Taylor P. Breuer C., Hoekman R., Nagel S., v. d. Werff H."Sport clubs in England" Sports clubs in Europe. A cross-national comparative perspective 2015 Basel, Switzerland Springer 141 167
140. Nichols G., Grix J., Ferguson G., Griffiths M."How sport governance impacted on Olympic legacy: A study of unintended consequences and the ‘Sport Makers’ volunteering programme" Managing Sport and Leisure 2016Vol 21 2 61 74 [Crossref]
141. Nichols G., Hogg E., Knight C., Mirfin-Boukouris H., Storr R., Uri C. Understanding motivations of sport volunteers in England: A review for Sport England 2016 Retrieved from
142. Nichols G., Padmore J., Taylor P., Barrett D."The relationship between types of sports club and English government policy to grow participation" International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics 2012Vol 4 2 187 200 [Crossref]
143. Nichols G., Tacon R., Muir A."Sports clubs’ volunteers: Bonding in or bridging out?" Sociology 2013Vol 47 350 367 [Crossref]
144. Nichols G., Taylor P., James M., Garrett R., Holmes K., King L., Gratton C., Kokolakakis T."Voluntary activity in uk sport" Voluntary Action 2004Vol 6 2 31 54
145. Nichols G., Taylor P., James M., Holmes K., King L., Garrett R."Pressures on the uk sports sector" Voluntas 2005Vol 16 1 33 50 [Crossref]
146. Nichols G., Wicker P., Cuskelly G., Breuer C."Measuring the formalisation of community sports clubs: Findings from the uk, Germany and Australia" International Journal of Sport, Policy and Politics 2015Vol 7 2 283 300 [Crossref]
147. Nicholson M., Hoye R. Sport and social capital 2008 Oxford Butterworth-Heinemann
148. O’Donohue W., Nelson L."The psychological contracts of Australian Hospital volunteer workers" Australian Journal on Volunteering 2009Vol 14 9 1 11
149. Oesterle S., Johnson M. K., Mortimer J. T."Volunteerism during the transition to adulthood: A life course perspective" Social Forces 2004Vol 82 1123 1149 [Crossref]
150. Ostrom E. Bartkus V. O., Davis J. H."What is social capital?" Social capital: Reaching out, reaching in 2009 Cheltenham Edward Elgar 17 38
151. Ostrom E., Ahn T. K. Foundations of social capital 2003 Cheltenham Edward Elgar
152. Papadimitriou D., Taylor P."Organizational effectiveness of Hellenic national sports organizations: A multiple constituency approach" Sport Management Review 2000Vol 3 23 46 [Crossref]
153. Paton R., Cornforth C. Batsleer J., Cornforth C., Paton R."What’s different about managing in voluntary and nonprofit organizations" Issues in Voluntary and Non-profit Management 1991 Wokingham Addison-Wesley 36 46
154. Pearce J. The organizational behaviour of unpaid workers 1993 London Routledge
155. Pearce J. L."Review: Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements by Denise M. Rousseau" Administrative Science Quarterly 1998Vol 43 1 184 186 [Crossref]
156. Prime D., Zimmeck M., Zurawan A. Active communities: Initial findings from the 2001 Home Office Citizenship Survey 2002 London Home Office
157. Putnam R."Who killed civic America?" Prospect 1996 March 66 72
158. Putnam R. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community 2000 New York Simon and Schuster Paperbacks
159. Putnam R. Our kids: The American Dream in crisis 2015 New York Simon and Schuster
160. Ralston R., Downward P., Lumsdon L."The expectations of volunteers prior to the xvii Commonwealth Games 2002: A qualitative study" Event Management 2004Vol 9 1/2 13 26 [Crossref]
161. Roberts K."Work and leisure: The recent history of a changing relationship and the related leisure issues" Vrijetijdstudies 1998Vol 16 1 21 34
162. Roberts K. The business of leisure 2016 Basingstoke Palgrave
163. Robinson J., Godbey G. Time for life: The surprising ways Americans use their time 1999 University Park, PA Pennsylvania State University Press
164. Rochester C., Ellis Paine A., Howlett S., Zimmeck M. Volunteering and society in the 21st Century 2010 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan [Crossref]
165. Rousseau D. M. Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements 1995 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage [Crossref]
166. Rousseau D. M., Tijoriwala S. A."Assessing psychological contracts: Issues, alternatives and measures" Journal of Organizational Behavior 1998Vol 19 S1 679 695 [Crossref]
167. Rowe N."Sporting capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis of sport participation determinants and its application to sports development policy and practice" International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics 2015Vol 7 1 43 61
168. Salamon L. M., Anheier H. K."In search of the non-profit sector. i: The question of definitions" Voluntas 1992Vol 3 2 125 151 [Crossref]
169. Salamon L. M., Sokolowski S. W., Haddock M. A."Measuring the economic value of volunteer work globally: Concepts, estimates, and a roadmap to the future" Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics 2011Vol 82 3 217 252 [Crossref]
170. Sandel M. What money can’t buy: The moral limits of markets 2012 London Allen Lane
171. Savage M., Devine F., Cunningham N., Taylor M., Li Y., Hjellbrekke J., Miles A."A new model of social class? Findings from the bbc’s Great British Class Survey experiment" Sociology 2013Vol 47 2 219 250 [Crossref]
172. Schein E. H. Organizational psychology 1965 Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall
173. Schlesinger T., Nagel S."Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in Swiss sports clubs" European Journal of Sport Science 2013Vol 13 6 707 715 [Crossref]
174. Schofer E., Fourcade-Gourinchas M."The structural contexts of civic engagement: Voluntary association membership in comparative perspective" American Sociological Review 2001Vol 66 6 806 828 [Crossref]
175. Schor J. Rojek Chris, Shaw Susan, Veal A. J."Overturning the modernist predictions: Recent trends in work and leisure in the oecd" A handbook of leisure studies 2006 Basingstoke Palgrave
176. Schulz J. Nichols G., Collins M."Paid staff in voluntary sporting organizations. Do they help or hinder?" Volunteers in Sports Clubs 2005 Eastbourne Leisure Studies Association 35 56
177. Schulz J., Nichols G., Auld C. Houlihan B., Green M."Issues in the management of voluntary sports organisations and volunteers" Routledge handbook of sports development 2011 London Routledge 432 445
178. Scott W. Organizations: Rational, natural and open systems 2003 5th edn Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall
179. Simon H. Administrative behaviour: A study of decision-making process in administrative organization 1965 2nd edn New York/London Free Press, Collier-Macmillan
180. Skille E. Å., Hanstad D. V."Who are they and why do they do it? The habitus of sport event volunteers in Norway: Volunteers at the European handball championship for women 2010" Sport in Society 2013Vol 16 1135 1148 [Crossref]
181. Slack T., Parent M. M. Understanding sport organizations: The application of organization theory 2006 Champaign. IL. uman Kinetics
182. Slack T., Thibault L."Values and beliefs: Their role in the structuring of national Sport organizations" Arena Review 1988Vol 12 140 155
183. Smith D. H."Organizational boundaries and organizational affiliates" Sociology and Social Research 1972Vol 56 4 494 512
184. Smith D. H. Grassroots associations 2000 London Sage
185. Smith D. H."S-Theory as a comprehensive explanation of formal volunteering: Testing" The Theory of Everyone on Russian national sample interview data 2015a Paper presented at the annual Conference of ARNOVA November 19–21 Chicago, IL, USA
186. Smith D. H. Wright J. D."Voluntary associations, Sociology of" International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences 2015bVol Vol. 25 2nd edn Oxford Elsevier 252 260 [Crossref]
187. Smith D. H."A survey of voluntaristics: Research on the growth of the global, interdisciplinary, socio-behavioral science field and emergent inter-discipline" Voluntaristics Review 2016Vol 1 2 1 81 [Crossref]
188. Smith D. H. S-Theory (Synanthrometrics) as “The Theory of Everyone”—a proposed new standard human science model of behavior, especially pro-social behavior forthcoming 2018 Bradenton, FL David Horton Smith International
189. Smith D. H., Wang L. Smith D. H., Stebbins R. A., Grotz J."Conducive social roles and demographics influencing volunteering" Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations 2016 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan (ch. 28) [Crossref]
190. Smith D. H., Pospíšilová T., Wu F. Smith D. H., Stebbins R. A., Grotz J."National and other supra-local associations: Meso-associations" Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations 2016 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan (ch. 33) [Crossref]
191. Smith D. H., Stebbins R. A., Dover M. A dictionary of nonprofit terms and concepts 2006 Bloomington, IN Indiana University Press (Chinese edition, translation by Prof. Xinye Wu, 2017. Beijing, China: Peking University Press)
192. Smith D. H., van Puyvelde S. Smith D. H., Stebbins R. A., Grotz J."S-Theory as a comprehensive interdisciplinary model of volunteering and pro-social behavior" Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations 2016 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan (ch. 31) [Crossref]
193. Social Inclusion and Volunteering in Sports Clubs in Europe 2016 Retrieved from
194. Soteri-Proctor A., Smith D. H., Pospíšilová T., Roka K., Yu P. Smith D. H., Stebbins R. A., Grotz J."Local or grassroots associations: Micro-associations" Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations 2016 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan (ch. 32)
195. Sparvero E., Chalip L., Green B. C. Houlihan B., Green M."United States" Comparative elite sport development: systems, structures and public policy 2007 London Butterworth-Heinemann 242 272
196. Sport and Recreation Alliance"Survey of sports clubs 2011. London: Sport and Recreation Alliance" 2011 accessed January 10, 2012 Retrieved from
197. Sport and Recreation Alliance"Survey of sports clubs 2013" 2013 London Sport and Recreation Alliance Retrieved from (accessed January 8, 2014)
198. Sport and Recreation Alliance"What’s the score? A snapshot of sports clubs in England and Wales" 2016 Retrieved from
199. Sport England"Active People Survey 1 (online)" 2009 accessed January 5, 2011 Retrieved from
200. Sport England Active People Survey 5–7 Technical Report 2013 London Sport England/TNS BMRB
201. Sport England"Volunteering in an active nation" 2016a Retrieved from
202. Sport England"How do I develop a volunteering strategy?" 2016b Retrieved from
203. Sport Wales Sports volunteering in Wales: Findings from two research studies 2010 Sport Wales research findings
204. Spracklen K. Constructing leisure: Historical and philosophical debates 2011 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan [Crossref]
205. Starnes B. J."An analysis of psychological contracts in Volunteerism and the effect of contract breach on volunteer contributions to the organization" The International Journal of Volunteer Administration 2007Vol XXIV 3 31 41
206. Stebbins R. A. Serious leisure: A perspective for our time 2007 New Brunswick, NJ Transaction Publishers
207. Storbeck O."Coerced citations and manipulated impact factors—the dirty tricks of academic journals" 2012 accessed April 23, 2012 Retrieved from Economics Intelligence:
208. Such L."Little leisure in the Big society" Leisure Studies 2013Vol 32 1 89 109 [Crossref]
209. Taylor P. Torkildsen’s Sport and Leisure Management 2011 6th edn London Routledge
210. Taylor P., Barrett D., Nichols G. Survey of sports clubs 2009 2009 London CCPR
211. Taylor P., Nichols G., Holmes K., James M., Gratton C., Garrett R., Kokolakakis T., Mulder C., King L. Sports volunteering in England 2003 London Sport England
212. Taylor P., Panagouleas T., Nichols G."Determinants of sports volunteering and sports volunteer time in England" International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics 2012 Retrieved from , 4, 2, 201–220
213. Taylor R."Extending conceptual boundaries: Work, voluntary work and employment" Work, Employment and Society 2004Vol 18 1 29 49 [Crossref]
214. Taylor R. Pettinger L., Parry J., Taylor R., Glucksmann M."Rethinking voluntary work" A new sociology of work? (Sociological review monographs) 2005 Oxford Blackwell 119 135 (2005)
215. Taylor T., Darcy S., Hoye R., Cuskelly G."Using psychological contract theory to explore issues in effective volunteer management" European Sport Management Quarterly 2006Vol 6 2 123 147 [Crossref]
216. Teklaeb A. G., Taylor M. S."Aren’t there two parties in an employment relationship? Antecedents and consequences of organization—employee agreement on contract obligations and violations" Journal of Organizational Behaviour 2003Vol 24 585 608 [Crossref]
217. Thompson E. P."Time, work-discipline, and industrial capitalism" Past & Present 1967Vol 38 56 97 [Crossref]
218. Thompson E. P. The making of the English working class 2013 new edn London Penguin Modern Classics
219. Thompson J. A., Bunderson J. S."Violations of principle: Ideological currency in the psychological contract" Academy of Management Review 2003Vol 28 4 571 587
220. Van der Roest J. W., van Kalmthout J., Meijs L."A consumerist turn in Dutch voluntary sport associations?" European Journal for Sport and Society 2016Vol 13 1 1 18 [Crossref]
221. Veal A. J."The serious leisure perspective and the experience of leisure" Leisure Sciences 2016a doi: 10.1080/01490400.2016.1189367
222. Veal A. J."Leisure, income inequality and the Veblen effect: Cross-national analysis of leisure time and sport and cultural activity" Leisure Studies 2016bVol 35 2 215 240 [Crossref]
223. Veal A. J., Nichols G."Volunteering and income inequality: Cross-national relationships" Voluntas 2016 doi: 10.1007/s11266-016-9818-9
224. Verba S., Nie N. N. Participation in America: Political democracy and social equality 1972 New York Harper & Row
225. Verba S., Schlozman K. L., Brady H. E. Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics 1995 Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press
226. Vermeulen J., Verweel P."Participation in sport: Bonding and bridging as identity work" Sport in Society 2009Vol 12 9 1206 1219 [Crossref]
227. Verweel P., Anthonissen A."Ethnic diversity in organised sport: Development of social capital by Dutch immigrants" Cyprus Journal of Sciences 2006Vol 4 109 128
228. Walseth K."Bridging and bonding social capital in sport: Experiences of young women with an immigrant background" Sport, Education & Society 2008Vol 13 1 1 17 [Crossref]
229. Warde A., Tampubolon G., Longhurst B., Ray K., Savage M., Tomlinson M."Trends in social capital: Membership of associations in Great Britain, 1991–1998" British Journal of Political Science 2003Vol 33 515 555 [Crossref]
230. Weed M. Girginov V."London 2012 legacy strategy: Ambitions, promises and implementation plans" The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, Volume One: Making the Games 2012 London Routledge 87 98
231. Weed M. Girginov V."London 2012 legacy strategy: Did it deliver?" Handbook of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Volume two: Celebrating the Games 2014 London Routledge 281 294
232. Weed M., Coren E., Fiore J. A systematic review of the evidence base for developing a physical activity and health legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games 2009 Centre for Sport, Physical Education and Activity Research, Canterbury Christ Church University
233. Weed M., Robinson J., Downward P., Green M., Henry I., Houlihan B., Argent E. Academic review of the role of voluntary sports clubs 2005 Institute of Sport & Leisure Policy, Loughborough University
234. Weisbrod B. A. The voluntary non-profit sector 1978 Lexington, MA Lexington Books In C. Gratton & P. Taylor, (1991). Government and the economics of sport. London: E. and F. Spon
235. Welch M., Long J. Sports Clubs: Their economic and social impact: An analysis of the economic and social impact of voluntary sports clubs in England, the benefits provided by volunteers working within those clubs and the key factors impacting on them 2006 Prepared for CCPR by the Carnegie Research Institute, Leeds Metropolitan University
236. Williams C. C."Beyond the market/non-market divide: A total social organisation of labour perspective" International Journal of Social Economics 2010Vol 37 6 402 414 [Crossref]
237. Wollebaek D., Skirstad B., Hanstad D. V."Between two volunteer cultures: Social composition and motivation among volunteers at the 2010 test event for the fis Nordic World Ski Championships" International Review for the Sociology of Sport 2014Vol 49 22 41 [Crossref]
238. Zald M. N. Organizational change: The political economy of the YMCA 1970 Chicago, IL University of Chicago Press
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/24054933-12340015
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/24054933-12340015
2017-03-23
2017-11-22

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Voluntaristics Review — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation