Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Raised a Teenage Kataphatic

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Utilising Spiritual Type Theory in Assessing Catechetical Models of Adolescent Faith Development

image of Journal of Youth and Theology

The framework for this study comes from the historical and contextual theory of apophatic and kataphatic spiritual typologies within the “Circle of Sensibility” espoused by spiritual type theorists. This study analyses seven years of collected data, comparing spiritual type similarities and differences of late adolescent students at a private Christian university in the United States. A major premise of the study underscores the influence catechetical models have on faith development during mid-to-late adolescence. A subsidiary objective of the study measured participants’ perceptions of the importance and frequency of practice of twelve spiritual disciplines. The results of the study confirm outcomes in all four major spiritual type categories within the Circle of Sensibility. Based on the findings, the author offers several recommendations for research in utilising spiritual type theory for understanding catechetical models within youth ministry praxis.

Affiliations: 1: Associate Professor, Student & Family Ministries; and Chair Christian Ministries department, Corban University, Salem or, USA,


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Allen Holly ,and Ross Christian . Intergenerational Christian Formation: Bringing the Whole Church Together in Ministry, Community and Worship . Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2012.
2. Baron R. ,& Wagele E. Are You My Type, am I Yours?: Relationships Made Easy Through the Enneagram . San Francisco, CA: Harper, 1995.
3. Beesing M. ,, Nogosek R. J. ,& O’Leary P.H. The Enneagram: A Journey of Self-discovery . Denville, NJ: Dimension Books, Inc., 1984.
4. Boa Kenneth . Conformed to His Image: Biblical and Practical Approaches to Spiritual Formation . Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001.
5. Bogdan R.C. ,and Biklen S.K. Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods . Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1992.
6. Bosch Paul . “ "I Was a Teenage Kataphatic".” Paul Bosch’s Worship Workbench , Essay 24 (January, 1999), accessed October 17, 2002. .
7. Calhoun Adele . Spiritual Disciplines Handbook: Practices That Transform Us . Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2005.
8. Corban University. “ "Information and Facts",” Corban University , accessed October 25, 2014, .
9. ———. “ "Frequently Asked Questions",” Corban University , accessed October 25, 2014a. .
10. ———. “ "Picture of Our Past: Corban’s History",” Corban University , accessed October 25, 2014b. .
11. Dean Kenda Creasy . Almost Christian: What the Faith of Our Teenagers is Telling the American Church . New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010.
12. Dunn Richard ,and Sundene Janna . Shaping the Journey of Emerging Adults: Life-Giving Rhythms for Spiritual Transformation . Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2012.
13. Edwards K. ,, Slater W. ,, Hall T. ,, Oda A. ,, & Eck B. Assessing Spiritual Functioning Among Christian College Students . Paper presented at the Convention of the American Psychological Association Convention, San Francisco, CA, 2001.
14. Edwards T. “ "Spiritual Formation in Theological Schools: Ferment and Challenge. A Report of the ATSShalem Institute on Spirituality".” Theological Education Vol 17( 1980): 752.
15. Egan Harvey . “ "Christian Apophatic and Kataphatic Mysticisms".” Theological Studies Vol 39, 3( 1978): 399427.
16. Foster Richard . Celebration of Discipline . New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1988.
17. Fowler James . States of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning . New York, NY: Harper Collins, 1981.
18. Goalder J. S. “ "Christian Development and Religious Typologies: A Proposed Theory and Tests of its Validity".” Dissertation Abstracts International , Vol 51(07B) UMINo. 9025879. 354B, 1990.
19. Greeves Trish . “ "Nurturing Spirituality in the Local Church".” Clergy Journal Vol 78, 5( 2002): 57.
20. Holmes Urban T. A History of Christian Spirituality: An Analytical Introduction . Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing, 2002.
21. Hurley K. V. ,and Dobson T. E. Discover Your Soul Potential: Using the Enneagram to Awaken Spiritual Vitality . Lakewood, CO: Wind Walker Press, 2000.
22. Jacober Amy . The Adolescent Journey: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Practical Youth Ministry . Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2011.
23. Jungmeen K. E. ,, Nesselroad J. R. ,, & Featherman D. L. “ "The State Component in Self-reported Worldviews and Religious Beliefs of Older Adults: The MacArthur Successful Aging Studies".” Psychology and Aging Vol 11, 3( 1996): 296407.
24. Morse Mary Kate . “ "The Teaching of Prayer in Bible Colleges and Seminaries".” Faculty Publications – George Fox Evangelical Seminary ( 2004). Paper, 1.
25. Mulholland Robert M. Invitation to a Journey: A Road Map for Spiritual Formation . Downers Grove, IL: InverVarsity Press, 1993.
26. Naidoo Marilyn . “ "An Empirical Study on Spiritual Formation at Protestant Theological Training Institutions in South Africa".” Religion & Theology Vol 18( 2011): 118146.
27. Payton James Jr . Light from the Christian East: An Introduction to the Orthodox Tradition . Downers Grove, ILIVP Academic, 2007.
28. Piedmont Ralph . “ "Spiritual Transcendence and the Scientific Study of Spirituality".” Journal of Rehabilitation Vol 67( 2001): 415.
29. Rhea Rob . “ "Exploring Spiritual Formation in the Christian Academy: The Dialects of Church, Culture, and the Larger Integrative Task".” Journal of Psychology & Theology Vol 39, 1( 2011): 315.
30. Sager Allen . Gospel-centered Spirituality: An Introduction to our Spiritual Journey . Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress, 1990.
31. Schneiders S. M. ,“ "Spirituality in the Academy".” In Collins K. J. , (Ed.). Exploring Christian Spirituality: An Ecumenical Reader . Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000.
32. Setran David ,and Kiesling Chris . Spiritual Formation in Emerging Adulthood: A Practical Theology for College and Young Adult Ministry . Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2013.
33. Smith Christian ,and Snell Patricia . Souls in Transition: The Religious and spiritual Lives of Emerging Adults . New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009.
34. Smith Gordon . Called to be Saints: And Invitation to Christian Maturity . Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2014.
35. Ventimiglia J. C. “ "Significant Others in the Professional Socialization of Catholic Seminarians".” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 17( 1978): 4352.
36. Ware Corinne . Discover your Spiritual Type: A Guide to Individual and Congregational Growth . New York, NY: The Alban Institute, 1995.
37. Westerhoff John . Spiritual Life: The Foundation for Preaching and Teaching . Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994.
38. Whitney Donald . Spiritual Disciplines for the Christian Life . Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 1991.
39. Willard Dallas . The Spirit of the Disciplines: Understanding How God Changes Lives . New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1988.
40. Wit H.F. , de. The Spiritual Path: An Introduction to the Psychology of the Spiritual Traditions . Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press, 1999.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Journal of Youth and Theology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation