Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

International Investment Law and Arbitration: History, Modern Practice, and Future Prospects

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

International Investment Law is one of the most dynamically growing fields of International Law as shown by the volume of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs), and investment chapters in a growing numbers of regional and mega-regional trade agreements. This paper explores the origin, evolution and operation of International Investment Law. It discusses the main actors, the protections afforded to foreign investments and investors, and the content of modern BITs. The legal issues and challenges International Investment Law faces today are brought into perspective. Particularly, this paper provides an assessment of the measures put forth by the European Union aimed at transforming the traditional investor-State arbitration system to an Investment Court System. An examination of the NAFTA re-negotiations is also presented, including the impact that CETA, a trade deal between the EU and Canada could have in the outcome of the current re-negotiations.

Affiliations: 1: Georgetown University Law Center ; 2: Georgetown University Law Center ; 3: Georgetown University Law Center


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Alvarez Jose Enrique The Public International Law Regime Governing International InvestmentVol 344 Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law 193 2009
2. Amerasinghe Chittharanjan Felix"Local Remedies in International Law" 2nd ed 2004
3. Bergsten Eric Americanization of International ArbitrationVol 18 Pace Int’l L. Rev. 289 2006
4. Bernasconi-Osterwalder Nathalie The Draft Investment Chapter of the Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement: A Step Backwards for the EU and Canada? Investment Treaty News June 26 2013
5. Bierbrauer Elfriede"Negotiations on the eu-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (ceta) Concluded, Directorate-Gen. for External Policies, European Parliament" 2014
6. Birch Nicholas J., Laird Ian, Sabahi Borzu"International Investment Law Regime and the Rule of Law as a Precondition for International Development" New Directions in International Economic Law Weiler Todd, Baetens Freya 2011
7. Bishop R. Doak, Reed Lucy Practical Guidelines for Interviewing, Selecting and Challenging Party-Appointed Arbitrators in International Commercial ArbitrationVol 14 Arb. Int’l 2 1998
8. Björklund Andrea K."Investment Treaty Arbitral Decisions as Jurisprudence Constante" International Economic Law: The State and Future of the Discipline Picker Colin, Bunn Isabella, Arner Douglas 2008
9. Borchard Edwin the Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad 1915
10. Borchard Edwin Minimum Standard of Treatment of Aliens 1939Vol 33 ASIL Proc. 51
11. Bottini Gabriel"Reform of the Investor-State Arbitration Regime: The Appeal Proposal" reshaping investor-state dispute settlement system, journey for the 21st century Kalicki Jean E, Joubin-Bret Anna 2015
12. Broches Aron"Development of International Law by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development" Proceedings of asil Vol 33 81 1965
13. Brown Chester"Introduction: The Development and Importance of the Model Bilateral Investment Treaty" Commentaries on Selected Model Investment Treaties Brown Chester 2013
14. Brownlie Ian Principles of Public International Law 6th ed 2003
15. Busse Matthias, Königer Jens, Nunnenkamp Peter FDI promotion through bilateral investment treaties: more than a bit? Review of World Economics / Weltwirtschaftliches ArchivVol Vol. 146 No. 1 April 2010
16. Cheng Tai-Heng"Positivism, New Haven Jurisprudence, and the Fragmentation of International Law" New Directions in International Economic Law Weiler Todd, Baetens Freya 2011
17. Commission Jeffery P. Precedent in Investment Treaty Arbitration: A Citation Analysis of a Developing JurisprudenceVol 24 j. Int’l Arb. 129 2007
18. Crawford James Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law 8th ed 2012 [Crossref]
19. Cremades Bernardo M. Disputes Arising Out of Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America: A New Look at the Calvo Doctrine and Other Jurisdictional IssuesVol 59 Disp. Res. J. 78 2004
20. De Mestral Armand Pre-Entry Obligations under International Law, in International Investment Law Bungenberg Griebel, Hobe Reinisch CH Beck Hart Nomos 2015
21. De Mestral Armand When Does the Exception Become the Rule? Conserving Regulatory Space under CETAVol 18 J. Int’l Econ. L. 641, 643 2015
22. Dolzer Rudolf, Schreuer Christoph Principles of International Investment Law 2nd ed 2012 [Crossref]
23. Dolzer Rudolf, Stevens Margrete Bilateral Investment Treaties Vol 50 1995
24. Douglas Zachary The Hybrid Foundations of Investment Treaty ArbitrationVol 74 Brit. Y.B. Int’l L. 151 2003
25. Dugan Christopher f., Wallace Don, Rubins Noah, Sabahi Borzu Investor-State Arbitration Oxford UP 2008
26. Elkins Zachary , et al Competing for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1960–2000 2008 u. Ill. L. Rev. 265 2008
27. Fitch Stephen D. The Harriman Manganese Concession in the Soviet Union: Lessons for TodayVol 9 Int’l Tax & Bus. L. 209 1991
28. García Amador F.V. Fourth Report of the Special Rapporteur, Responsibility of the State for Injuries Caused in its Territory to the Person or Property of Aliens—Measures Affecting Acquired RightsVol 2 Y.B. Int’l L. Comm. 1 United Nations 1959
29. Gardner John Legal Positivism: 5 ½ MythsVol 46 Am J. of Juris. 199 2001
30. Giorgetti Chiara Between Legitimacy and Control: Challenges and Recusals of Judges and Arbitrators in International Courts and TribunalsVol 49 Geo. Wash. Int’l L. Rev. 205 2017
31. Goebel Julius Jr."The International Responsibility of States for Injuries Sustained by Aliens on Account of Mob Violence" Insurrections and Civil WarsVol 8 Am. J. Int’l L. 802 1914
32. Gómez-Palacio Ignacio, Muchlinski Peter"Admission and Establishment" The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law Muchlinski Peter, Ortino Federico, Schreuer Christoph 2008
33. Gonzalez Garcia Luis"Making Impossible Investor-State Reform Possible" reshaping investor-state dispute settlement system, journey for the 21st century Kalicki Jean E, Joubin-Bret Anna 2015
34. Gordon K., Pohl J. Investment Treaties over Time—Treaty Practice and Interpretation in a Changing World oecd Publ’n, Working Paper No. 2 2015
35. Grierson-Weiler Todd J., Laird Ian A."Standards of Treatments" The Oxford Handbook, in The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law Muchlinski Peter, Ortino Federico, Schreuer Christoph 2008
36. Gudgeon K. United States Bilateral Investment Treaties: Comments on Their Origin, Purposes, and General Treatment StandardsVol 4 Int’l Tax & Bus. L. 105 1986
37. Gus Van Harten The Public-Private Distinction in the International Arbitration of Individual Claims Against the StateVol 56 International & Comparative Law Quarterly (ICLQ) 371 2007
38. Hackworth Green H. 3 Digest of International LawVol 655 1942
39. Harvard Law School Research in International Law The Law of Responsibility of States for Damage Done in Their Territory to the Person or Property of ForeignersVol 23 Am. J. Int’l L., Special Supp. 131 1929
40. Hawkins Harry C. Commercial Treaties and Agreements: Principles and Practice New York Rinehart & Company Inc. 1951
41. Houde Marie-France, Yannaca-Small K. Relationships between International Investment Agreements oecd Publ’n Working Paper No. 1, 2004
42. Houde Marie-France Novel Features in Recent OECD Bilateral Investment Treaties, in International Investment Perspectives 2006
43. Jackson John H., Davey William J., Sykes Alan O. Legal Problems of International Economic Relations 4th ed 2001
44. Kahale George III Is Investor-State Arbitration Broken? TDM October 2012
45. Kahn Philip, Wälde Thomas Report for the Hague Academy 2004 in connection with the program “New Aspects of International Investment Law / Les aspects nouveaux du droit des investissements internationaux” Kahn Ph., Wälde T. W. 2004
46. Kaufmann-Kohler Gabrielle Arbitral Precedent: Dream, Necessity or Excuse?Vol 23 Arb. Int’l 357 2007
47. Kingsbury Benedict, Schill Stephan Investor-State Arbitration as Governance: Fair and Equitable Treatment, Proportionality and the Emerging Global Administrative Law September 2 2009) nyu School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 09 46
48. Kjos Hege Elisabeth Applicable Law in Investor-State Arbitration: The Interplay between National and International Law Oxford University Press 2013 [Crossref]
49. Kurtz Jurgen A General Investment Agreement in the WTO—Lessons from Chapter 11 of NAFTA and the OECD Multilateral Agreement on InvestmentVol 23 U. Pa. J. Int’l L. 756 2002
50. Laird Ian, Askew Rebecca Finality Versus Consistency: Does Investor-State Arbitration Need an Appellate SystemVol 7 J. App. Prac. & Process 285 2005
51. Lamm Carolyn B., Greenwald Brody K., Young Kristen M. From World Duty Free to Metal-Tech: A Review of International Investment Treaty Arbitration Cases Involving Allegations of CorruptionVol 29 2 ICSID Review 328 2014
52. Lipstein K. Conflict of Laws before International TribunalsVol 29 transactions of the grotius society 51 1944
53. Llamzon Aloysius Corruption in International Investment Arbitration Oxford 2014
54. Lowenfeld Adreas F. International Economic Law 2nd ed. 2008
55. Mackaay Ejan"History of Law and Economics" 1 Encyclopedia of Law and Economics Vol 65 Bouckaert Boudewijn, De Geest Gerrit 2000
56. Manning-Cabrol Denise The Imminent Death of the Calvo Clause and the Rebirth of the Calvo Principle: Equality of Foreign and National InvestorsVol 26 Law & Pol’y Int’l Bus. 1169 1995
57. Marboe Irmgard calculation of compensation and damages in international investment law OUP Oxford 2009 [Crossref]
58. McLachlan Campbell, Shore Laurence, Weiniger Matthew International Investment Arbitration: Substantive Principles Oxford University Press 2007 [Crossref]
59. Mitchell Nancy The Danger of Dreams: German and American Imperialism in Latin America University of North Carolina Press 1999
60. Monagas Yessika U.S. Property in Jeopardy: Latin American Expropriations of U.S. Corporations’ Property AbroadVol 34 Hous. J. Int’l L. 455 2012
61. Montt Santiago State Liability in Investment Treaty Arbitration: Global Constitutional Law and Administrative Law In The BIT Generation 2009
62. Nafziger Wayne E. The Economics of Developing Countries 3rd ed. 1997
63. Newcombe Andrew, Paradell Lluís Law and Practice of Investment Treaties: Standards of Treatment Kluwer Law International 2009
64. Nussbaum Arthur Arbitration Between the Lena Goldfields Ltd. and the Soviet GovernmentVol 36 Cornell L. Rev. 31 1950
65. Oppenheim Lassa International Law: A Treatise Vol 111 4th Ed. 1926
66. Parlett Kate The Individual in the International Legal System: Continuity and Change in International Law Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2011 [Crossref]
67. Park Eun Young Appellate Review in Investor-State Arbitration, reshaping investor-state dispute settlement system, journey for the 21st century Kalicki Jean E, Joubin-Bret Anna 2015
68. Parra Antonio The History of ICSID Oxford 2012 [Crossref]
69. Paulsson Jan Arbitration without Privity ICSID Review 1995
70. Paulsson Jan Moral Hazard in International Dispute Resolution TDM June 10 2010
71. Pauwelyn Joost At the Edge of Chaos? Foreign Investment Law as a Complex Adaptive System, How It Emerged and How It Can Be ReformedVol 29 ICSID Rev. 372 2014
72. Ralston Jackson Harvey The Law and Procedure of Tribunals Being a Résumé of the Views of Arbitrators Questions Arising under the Law of Nations Stanford University Press rev. ed. 1926
73. Reisman Michael W. The View from the New Haven School of International Law, American Society of International Law Proceedings of the Annual Meeting 118 1992
74. Reinisch August, Malintoppi Loretta"Methods of Dispute Resolution" The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law Muchlinski Peter, Ortino Federico, Schreuer Christoph 2008
75. Reisman Michael, Arsanjani Mahnoush Interpreting Treaties for the Benefit of Third Parties: The “Salvors Doctrine” and the Use of Legislative History in Investment TreatiesVol 104 Am. J. Int’l L. 597 2010
76. Ripinsky Sergey, Williams Kevin damages in international investment law BIILC 2008
77. Roberts Anthea Clash of Paradigms: Actors and Analogies Shaping the Investment Treaty SystemVol 107 Am. J. Int’l L. 45 2013
78. Root Elihu The Basis of Protection to Citizens Residing AbroadVol 4 Am. J. Int’l L. 517 1910
79. Roth Andreas H. The minimum standard of international law applied to aliens Leiden A.W. Sijthoff 1949
80. Sabahi Borzu compensation and restitution in investor-state arbitration: principles and practice OUP Oxford 2011
81. Sabahi Borzu, Duggal Kabir Philip Morris Brands Sarl v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay International DecisionsVol 108 Am. J. Int’l L. 67 2014
82. Schill Stephan W. The Multilateralization of International Investment Law Cambridge University Press 2009 [Crossref]
83. Schreuer Christoph Consent to Arbitration, in The Oxford Handbook, in The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law Muchlinski Peter, Ortino Federico, Schreuer Christoph 2008
84. Schreuer Christoph, Malintoppi Loretta, Reinisch August, Sinclair Anthony The ICSID Convention: A Commentary 2nd ed. Cambridge 2009 [Crossref]
85. Schwarzenberger Georg The Abs-Shawcross Draft Convention on Investments Abroad: A Critical CommentaryVol 9 J. Pub. L. 147 1960
86. Shihata Ibrahim F. I. MIGA and Foreign Investment 1988
87. Sikkink Kathryn Reconceptualizing Sovereignty in the Americas: Historical Precursors and Current PracticesVol 19 Hous. J. Int’l L. 705 1997
88. Simma Bruno, Paulus Andreas L. Symposium on Method in International Law: The Responsibility of Individuals for Human Rights Abuses in Internal Conflicts: A Positivist ViewVol 93 Am. J. Int’l L. 302 1999
89. Skovgaard Poulsen Lauge N. Sauvant Karl P., Sachs Lisa E. The Effect of Treaties on Foreign Direct Investment: Bilateral Investment Treaties, Double Taxation Treaties, and Investment Flows Eur J Int Law 2009
90. Sloss David The Domestication of International Human Rights: Non-Self-Executing Declarations and Human Rights TreatiesVol 24 Yale J. Int’l L. 129 1999
91. Sornarajah M. Resistance and Change in the International Law of Foreign Investment 2015 [Crossref]
92. Sourgens Frédéric G. a Nascent Common Law Brill Nijhoff 2015
93. Spiegel Hans W. Origin and Development of Denial of JusticeVol 32 Am. J. Int’l L. 63 1938
94. Steingruber Andrea Marco Consent in International Arbitration Oxford 2012
95. unctad "National Treatment" UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements Vol II 1999
96. unctad World Investment Report—Foreign direct investment and the challenge of development 1999
97. unctad Admission and Establishment, in UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements 2002
98. unctad "Most-Favoured Nation Treatment" UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements Vol II 2010
99. unctad "Fair and Equitable Treatment" UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements Vol II 2012
100. Expropriation: A Sequel, in unctad Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements Vol II 2012
101. unctad Reform of Investor-State Dispute Settlement in Search of a Roadmap Issue N. 3 June 2013
102. unctad World Investment Report—Reforming International Investment Governance 2015
103. Van Haersolte-Van Hof, Jacomijn J., Hoffmann Anne K"The Relationship Between International Tribunals and Domestic Courts" in The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law Muchlinski Peter, Ortino Federico, Schreuer Christoph 2008
104. Vandevelde Kenneth J. The Bilateral Investment Treaty Program of the United StatesVol 21 Cornell Int’l L.J. 201 1988
105. Vandevelde Kenneth J. Reassessing the Hickenlooper AmendmentVol 29 Va. J. Int’l L. 115 1988
106. Vandevelde Kenneth J. The Political Economy of a Bilateral Investment TreatyVol 92 Am. J. Int’l L. 621 1998
107. Vattel E. the Law of Nations, or the Principles of Natural Law Kapossy Béla, Whatmore Richard 2008
108. Veeder V.V. The Lena Goldfields Arbitration: The Historical Roots Of Three IdeasVol 47 Int’l & Comp. L.Q. 718 1998
109. Vesel Scott Clearing A Path Through A Tangled Jurisprudence: Most-Favored-Nation Clauses and Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment TreatiesVol 32 Yale J. Int’l L. 125 2007
110. Waibel , et al eds The Backlash against Investment Arbitration: Perceptions and Reality Kluwer Law 2010
111. Wälde Investment Arbitration as a Discipline for Good Governance: Overview and Epilogue, [Oil, Gas & Energy Law] issue 2 2004
112. Wälde Thomas ‘The “Umbrella” Clause in Investment Arbitration: A Comment on Original Intentions and Recent Cases’Vol 6 J. World Investment & Trade 183 2005
113. Walker Herman Jr."Modern Treaties of Friendship" Commerce and NavigationVol 42 Minn. L. Rev. 805 1958
114. Wallace Don Jr."Case Study under nafta: Lessons for the Wise?" arbitrating foreign investment disputes: procedural and substantive legal aspects Kroll Stefan Michael, Horn Norbert Kluwer Law International 2004
115. Wallace Don Jr."Fair and Equitable Treatment and Denial of Justice: Loewen v us and Chattin v Mexico" International Law and Arbitration: Leading Cases from the ICSID, NAFTA, Bilateral Treaties and Customary International Law Weiler Todd 2005
116. Weiler Todd Interpretation of International Investment Law Martinus Nijhoff 2013 [Crossref]
117. Wilson Robert R. United States Commercial Treaties and International Law New Orleans The Hauser Press 1960
118. Wong Jarrod Umbrella Clauses in Bilateral Investment Treaties: Of Breaches of Contract, Treaty Violations, and the Divide Between Developing and Developed Countries in Foreign Investment Disputes Geo. Mason L. Rev. 135 2006
119. Yackee Jason W. Bilateral Investment Treaties, Credible Commitment, and the Rule of (International) Law: Do BITs Promote Foreign Direct Investment?Vol 42 Law & Society Review 805 2008
120. Abal Hermanos S.A. v. Uruguay, icsid Case No. arb/10/7, Decision on Jurisdiction (July 2, 2013).
121. aes Summit Generation Limited and aes-Tisza Erömü Kft v. The Republic of Hungary, icsid Case No. arb/07/22, iic 455 (2010), Award (17 September, 2010).
122. Alasdair Ross Anderson and Others v Costa Rica, icsid Case No ar b(af)/07/3, iic 437, Award (May 10th, 2010).
123. Americas, Inc. v. The United Mexican States, icsid Case No. arb (af)/04/5 (Rovine Separate Opinion, 20 September 2007).
124. Antoine Goetz and others v Republic of Burundi, icsid Case No arb/01/2, Award, (June 21, 2012).
125. Aramco v. Saudi Arabia (1963) 27 i.l.r. 117.
126. Asian Agricultural Products Ltd. (aapl) v. Republic of Sri Lanka. Case No. arb/87/3, 30 ilm 577 (1991).
127. Bayindir Insaat Turizm Ticaret Ve Sanayi A.S. v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan, icsid Case No. arb/03/29, iic 27 (2005), Decision on Jurisdiction, (November 14th, 2005).
128. bp Exploration Co (Libya) Ltd. v. Government of the Libyan Arab Republic, 53 ilr 297 (October 10, 1973).
129. Burlington Resources Inc. v. Republic of Ecuador, icsid Case No. arb/08/5, Decision on the Proposal for Disqualification of Professor Francisco Orrego Vicuña (13 De. 2013).
130. Burlington Resources Inc. v. Republic of Ecuador, icsid Case No. arb/08/5, Decision on Ecuador’s Counterclaims (February 7th, 2017).
131. cme Czech Republic B.V. v. The Czech Republic, Ad hoc Tribunal (uncitral) Final award and separate opinion, (March 14th, 2003).
132. Government of the State of Kuwait v. The American Independent Oil Company (aminoil) 21 ilm 976 (March 24, 1982).
133. Inceysa Vallisoletane, sl v El Salvador, Award, icsid Case No arb/03/26, iic 134, Award, (August 2, 2006).
134. Inceysa Vallisoletane, sl v El Salvador, Award, icsid Case No arb/03/26, iic 134, Award, (August 2, 2006).
135. Lauder v. Czech Republic, 9 icsid Rep. 62 (2001).
136. Libyan American Oil Company v Libyan Arab Republic, 62 ilr 140 (April 12, 1977).
137. Loewen Group, Inc. v. United States of America, icsid Case No. arb(af)/98/3, Award (June 26, 2003).
138. Maffezini v. Spain, icsid Case No. arb/97/7 (Jan. 25, 2000), 5 icsid Rep. 396 (2002).
139. Methanex Corporation v. United States of America, uncitral Award (August 3rd, 2005).
140. Malaysian Historical Salvors v. Malaysia, icsid Case No. arb/05/10, Decision on Application for Annulment (Apr. 16, 2009).
141. mtd Equity Sdn. Bhd. and mtd Chile s.a. v. Republic of Chile, icsid Case No. arb/01/7, iic 174, Award (May 25th, 2004).
142. Neer v. United Mexican States, 4 R. Int’l Arb. Awards 60 (Mex-u.s. Cl. Comm’n Oct. 15, 1926).
143. Occidental Petroleum Corp and Occidental Exploration and Production Company v Republic of Ecuador, icsid Case No. arb/06/11, Award, (Oct. 5th, 2012).
144. Perenco Ecuador Ltd. v. The Republic of Ecuador and Empresa Estatal Petróleos del Ecuador (Petroecuador), icsid Case No. arb/08/6, Interim Decision on the Environmental Counterclaim (August 11, 2015).
145. Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Ltd. v. Sheikh of Abu Dhabi (1951) 18 i.l.r. 144, (1951) 18 I. L. R. 144.
146. Philip Morris Brands Sàrl, Philip Morris Products s.a. and Abal Hermanos s.a. v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay, icsid Case No. arb/10/7 (2016).
147. Phoenix Action, Ltd. v. The Czech Republic, icsid Case No. arb/06/5 (April 15th, 2009).
148. Plama Consortium Limited v. Republic of Bulgaria, icsid Case No. arb/03/24, iic 338, Award (August 27th, 2008).
149. Romak S.A. (Switzerland) v. The Republic of Uzbekistan, uncitral, pca Case No. AA280 (2009).
150. Ruler of Qatar v. International Marine Oil. Co. Ltd, (1953) 20. ilr 534.
151. Salini Costruttori s.p.a. v. Morocco, icsid Case No. arb/00/4, Decision on Jurisdiction (July 23, 2001), 42 i.l.m. 609 (2003).
152. Société Général de Surveillance s.a. v. Pakistan, icsid Case No. arb/01/13, Objections to Jurisdiction, (Aug. 5, 2003), 18 icsid Rev. 301 (2003).
153. Société Général de Surveillance s.a. v. Philippines, icsid Case No. arb/02/6, Objections to Jurisdiction, 136–55 (Jan. 29, 2004), 8 icsid Rep. 518 (2005).
154. Texaco Overseas Petroleum Company and California Asiatic Oil Company v Government of Libya, (Preliminary Award), 53 ilr 389 (Nov. 27, 1975).
155. Tidewater Inc., Tidewater Investment srl, Tidewater Caribe, C.A., et al. v. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, icsid Case No. arb/10/5, Decision on Claimants’ Proposal to Disqualify Professor Brigitte Stern, Arbitrator (23 Dec. 2010).
156. Venezuela Holdings v. Venezuela, icsid Case No. arb/07/27, Decision on jurisdiction (June 10, 2010).
157. World Duty Free Company Limited v. Republic of Kenya, icsid Case No. arb/00/7, Award (October 2006).
158. Yukos Universal Limited (Isle of Man) v. The Russian Federation, uncitral, pca Case N. aa 227, Final Award (July 18th 2014).
159. Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. (u.k. v. Iran), 1952 i.c.j. 93 (July 22).
160. Barcelona Traction Light and Power (Belg. v. Spain) 1964 i.c.j. 6 (July 24).
161. Case Concerning The Factory at Chorzow, 1928 p.c.j.i. (ser. A) No. 17 (Sept. 13).
162. Elettronica Sicula S.p.A. (elsi) (u.s. v. It.), 1989 i.c.j. 15 (July 20).
163. Factory at Chorzów, Judgment 1928 p.c.i.j. (ser. A) No. 17 p. 47. (Sept. 13).
164. The Mavrommatis Palestine Concessions, 1924 p.c.j.i. (ser. A) No. 2 (Aug. 30).
165. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Costa Rica and the Government of Canada for the Protection and Promotion of Investment (18 March 1998), entered into force 29 September 1999 (Costa Rica-Canada bit).
166. Agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of the Philippines on the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments (April 18, 1997) entered into force 29 September 1999 (Germany-Philippines bit).
167. Agreement Between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Russian Federation Concerning the Promotion and Protection of Investment, Japan-Russ., Nov. 13, 1998.
168. Agreement for the Reciprocal Protection of Investments signed between the Republic of El Salvador and the Kingdom of Spain, (14 February 1995) 1983 unts 349, entered into force 20 February 1996.
169. Bilateral Investment Treaty between the Government of India and the Government of [Country] Model bit.
170. Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States adopted Mar. 18, 1965, 575 u.n.t.s. 159.
171. Havana Charter for an International Trade Organization, u.n. Doc. E/Conf. 2/78, at 14 (Mar. 24, 1948).
172. North American Free Trade Agreement, Dec. 8–Dec. 17, 1993, 32 i.l.m. 289 (1993).
173. oecd Draft Convention on Protection of Foreign Property, 7 i.l.m. 117 (1967).
174. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (comesa) Investment Agreement (2007).
175. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, between Canada, the European Union and its Member States, European Comm’n, Consolidated ceta Text (2014).
176. Energy Charter Treaty, 2080 unts 95 (1994).
177. eu—Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (Open for signature Dec. 2 2015, not yet in effect).
178. eu—Mexico Free Trade Agreement (updated text as of April 2017, not in effect).
179. -France-Ecuador Bilateral Investment Treaty (1994).
180. Southern African Development Community (sadc) Model bit (July 2012).
181. Trans-Pacific Partnership (tpp) Agreement (Opened for signature February 4 2016, not yet in effect).
182. Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: Trade in Services, Investment and E Commerce 17, European Commission Draft Text ttip (updated as of 2015).
183. Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the
184. United States of America (Jay Treaty), us- u.k., Nov. 19, 1794, 8 Stat. 116, T.S. 105, 12 Bevans 13.
185. Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, Nov. 28, 1956, u.s.-s. Kor., art. xxiv, 8 u.s.t. 2217, t.i. a.s. No. 3947.
186. Treaty of Friendship, Establishment and Navigation, Feb. 23, 1962, U.S.-Lu., art. xvii, 14 u.s.t. 251, t.i. a.s. No. 5306.
187. Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, Aug. 23, 1951, U.S.-Isr., art. xxiv, 5 u.s.t. 550, t.i. a.s. No. 2948.
188. Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of [Country] Concerning the Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection Investment [us Model bit 2012].
189. U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement, U.S.-Colom., Nov. 22, 2006.
190. U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, U.S.-Peru, April 12, 2006.
191. Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States, g.a. Res. 3281 (xxix), u.n. Doc. A/9631 (Dec. 12, 1974).
192. Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order, g.a. Res. 3201 (S-VI), u.n. Doc. A/res/S-6/3201 (May 1, 1974).
193. Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, in Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of Its Fifty-third Session, un gaor, 56th Sess., Supp. No. 10, at 43, un Doc. A/56/10 (2001).
194. uncitral Arbitration Rules, g.a. Res. 65/22, un Doc. A/res/65/22 (2010).
195. u.n. Secretary-General, The Promotion of the International Flow of Private Capital, u.n. Doc. E/3325 (1960).
196. Encyclopædia Britannica
197. European Commission website
198. Global Affairs Canada, NAFTA Free Trade Commission
199. ICSID website
200. Investment Policy Hub
201. Office of the United States Trade Representatives (USTR): Summary of Objectives for the NAFTA Renegotiation
202. Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
203. Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA)
204. The Group of 77
205. the new york times
206. the washington post
207. United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law
208. U.S. Department of Commerce

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Brill Research Perspectives in International Investment Law and Arbitration — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation