Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Arctic Ocean Shipping

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Navigation, Security and Sovereignty in the North American Arctic

image of Brill Research Perspectives in the Law of the Sea

Arctic Ocean shipping is on the brink of becoming a critical legal, geopolitical and security issue as a result of the impacts of climate change and increased interest in the Arctic Ocean from States that traditionally did not operate within the region. The law of the sea through UNCLOS provides the key legal framework for the regulation of Arctic Ocean shipping, supplemented and extended by related IMO conventions and national laws and regulations. This framework has been relied upon by the two major North American Arctic States – Canada and the United States – to develop the legal regime for the Northwest Passage and the Bering Strait. There have been historic disagreements between Canada and the United States with respect to the Northwest Passage, and while not resolved they have to date been managed through legal and political responses. Other straits may become more strategically significant as a result of climate change, including Nares Strait between Canada and Greenland. EEZ and high seas Arctic Ocean navigation by foreign flagged vessels also needs to be anticipated. Multiple issues are raised with respect to maritime security and the adequacy of the existing legal regime, including how Canada and the United States will respond to interest being expressed in Arctic shipping by Asian States such as China.

Affiliations: 1: Australian National University Donald.Rothwell@anu.edu.au

10.1163/24519359-12340103
/content/journals/10.1163/24519359-12340103
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/24519359-12340103
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. "‘Chinese ships headed home after Bering Sea sighting: U.S. Navy’" Reuters 4 September 2015 at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-china-military-drills-idUSKCN0R30F120150904 last accessed on on 1 November 2017
2. "‘Coast Guard Defines Bering Strait Shipping Lane’" The Maritime Executive 18 November 2015 at: http://www.maritime-executive.com/article/coast-guard-defines-bering-strait-shipping-lane last accessed on 1 November 2017
3. "‘Prime Minister Harper Announces Government of Canada Will Extend Jurisdiction over Arctic Waters’" Government of Canada News Release – Office of the Prime Minister 27 August 2008 at: https://www.canada.ca/en/news/archive/2008/08/prime-minister-harper-announces-government-canada-extend-jurisdiction-over-arctic-waters.html last accessed on 1 November 2017
4. "‘Special Report: The Arctic’" The Economist June 16th–22nd 2012
5. "‘U.S. Coast Guard Bering Strait Route Study Available’" The Maritime Executive 1 March 2017 at: https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/us-coast-guard-bering-strait-route-study-available last accessed on 1 November 2017
6. Alexander Lewis M. Navigational Restrictions within the New LOS Context Brill/Nijhoff Leiden/Boston 2017
7. Alfredsson Gudmundur"‘Arctic governance: Human Rights, Good Governance and Democracy’" 2012Vol 4 The Yearbook of Polar Law 141 153 [Crossref]
8. Arctic Council Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report Arctic Council Tromsø 2009
9. Armstrong T.E."‘Soviet Proposals for the Arctic: A Policy Declaration by Mr Gorbachev’" 1988Vol 24 Polar Record 68 69 [Crossref]
10. Auburn F.M. Antarctic Law and Politics Croom Helm London 1982
11. Bannelier Karine, Christakis Theodore, Heathcote Sarah The ICJ and the Evolution of International Law: The enduring impact of the Corfu Channel case Routledge New York 2012
12. Baxter R.R. The Law of International Waterways Harvard University Press Cambridge, Mass. 1964 [Crossref]
13. Beesley J.A., Bourne C.B."‘Canadian Practice in International Law during 1970 as Reflected Mainly in Public Correspondence and Statements of the Department of External Affairs’" 1971Vol 9 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 288
14. Berkman Paul Arthur, Vylegzhanin Alexander N, Young Oran R"‘Governing the Bering Strait: Current Status, Emerging Issues and Future Options’" 2016Vol 47 Ocean Development and International Law 186 217 [Crossref]
15. Borgerson Scott G."‘Arctic Meltdown: The Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming’" 2008Vol 87 Foreign Affairs 63 77
16. Brigham Lawson W. "‘The Changing Maritime Arctic and New Maritime Operations’" Beckman Robert C. , et al Governance of Arctic Shipping Brill/Nijhoff Leiden/Boston 2017 3 23
17. Brigham Lawson"‘Navigating the New Maritime Arctic’" May 2009Vol 135 5 (No 1275) Proceedings US Naval Institute 42
18. Broadhead Lee-Anne"‘Canadian sovereignty verses northern security: the case for updating our mental map of the Arctic’" Jensen Leif Christian, Hønneland Geir Handbook of the Politics of the Arctic Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK 2015 281 297 [Crossref]
19. Brubaker R.D. The Russian Arctic Straits Martinus Nijhoff Leiden 2005
20. Brüel Erik International Straits Vol Vol II Sweet & Maxwell London 1947
21. Byers Michael, Lalonde Suzanne"‘Who controls the Northwest Passage?’" 2009Vol 42 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 1133 1210
22. Byers Michael International Law and the Arctic Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2013 [Crossref]
23. Caminos Hugo"‘Categories of International Straits Excluded from the Transit Passage Regime under Part III of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea’" Ndiaye Tafsir Malick, Wolfrum Rűdiger Law of the Sea, Environautical milesental Law and Settlement of Disputes Martinus Nijhoff Leiden 2007 583 592
24. Charney Jonathan I., Alexander Lewis M. International Maritime BoundariesVol Vol I Martinus Nijhoff Dordrecht/Boston 1993
25. Chircop Aldo"‘Jurisdiction over ice-covered areas and the Polar Code: an emerging symbiotic relationship’" 2016Vol 22 Journal of International Maritime Law 275 290
26. Chircop Aldo"‘The Growth of International Shipping in the Arctic: Is a Regulatory Review Timely?’" 2009Vol 24 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 355 380 [Crossref]
27. Chircop Aldo"‘The IMO, Its Role under UNCLOS and Its Polar Shipping Regulation’" Beckman Robert C. , et al Governance of Arctic Shipping: Balancing Rights and Interests of Arctic States and User States Brill/Nijhoff Leiden/Boston 2017 107 143
28. Coates K.S. , et al Arctic Front: Defending Canada in the Far North Thomas Allen Toronto 2008
29. Cohen Maxwell"‘The Arctic and the National Interest’" 1970Vol 26 International Journal 52 [Crossref]
30. Conley Heather A. , et al The New Foreign Policy Frontier: U.S. Interests and Actors in the Arctic Centre for Strategic & International Studies Washington 2013
31. Cooper Helene"‘In a First, Chinese Navy Sails Off Alaska’" The New York Times 2 September 2015), at: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/03/world/asia/in-a-first-chinese-navy-sails-off-alaska.html last accessed on 1 November 2017
32. Coppes Mieke, Herrmann Victoria First Past the Pole: Harper, Trudeau, and Canada’s Arctic Values The Arctic Institute, Centre for Circumpolar Security Studies Washington October 30 2015 at http://www.thearcticinstitute.org/2015/10/first-past-the-pole.html last accessed on 1 November 2017
33. Crawford James Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law 8th Clarendon Press Oxford 2012 [Crossref]
34. Critchley W. Harriet"‘Polar Deployment of Soviet Submarines’" 1984Vol 39 International Journal 828 865 [Crossref]
35. Cuyvers Luc The Strait of Dover Martinus Nijhoff Dordrecht 1986
36. de La Fayette Louise A."‘Oceans Governance in the Arctic’" 2008Vol 23 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 531 566 [Crossref]
37. de Mestral Armand"‘Article 234 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Its Origins and Future’" Lalonde Suzanne, McDorman Ted L International Law and the Politics of the Arctic Ocean: Essays in Honour of Donat Pharand Brill Leiden/Boston 2015 111 124
38. Department of Defense (usa) Report to Congress on Arctic Operations and the Northwest Passage Department of Defense Washington May 2011
39. Emmerson Charles The Future History of the Arctic Public Affairs London 2010
40. Faringdon Hugh Strategic Geography: NATO, the Warsaw Pact, and the Superpowers 2nd Routledge London 1989
41. Franckx Erik, Boone Laura"‘Section 8 Ice-covered areas Article 234 Ice-covered areas’" Proelss Alexander United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: A Commentary C.H. Beck/Hart/Nomos Müchen/Oxford/Baden-Baden 2017 1566
42. Franckx Erik Maritime Claims in the Arctic: Canadian and Russian Perspectives Martinus Nijhoff Dordrecht/Boston/London 1993
43. Friedman Lisa"‘Trump Administration Moves to Open Arctic Refuge to Drilling Studies’" The New York Times September 16 2017 at: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/16/climate/trump-arctic-refuge-drilling.html last accessed on 1 November 2017
44. Government of Canada"‘Canada’s Northern Strategy’" at: http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/eu-ue/policies-politiques/arctic-arctique.aspx?lang=eng last accessed on 1 November 2017
45. Government of Canada"‘Statement on Canada’s Arctic Foreign Policy’" 2013 at: http://www.international.gc.ca/arctic-arctique/assets/pdfs/canada_arctic_foreign_policy-eng.pdf last accessed on 1 November 2017
46. Government of the United States of America"‘Executive Order: Enhancing Coordination of National Efforts in the Arctic’" 21 January 2015), at: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2015/01/21/executive-order-enhancing-coordination-national-efforts-arctic last accessed on 1 November 2017
47. Grant Shelagh D. Polar Imperative: A History of Arctic Sovereignty in North America Douglas & McIntyre Vancouver 2010
48. Gunnarsson Bjorn"‘The Future of Arctic Marine Operations and Shipping Logistics’" Young Oran R., Kim Jong Deog, Kim Yoon Hyung The Arctic in World Affairs Korea Maritime Institute/East-West Centre Seoul/Honolulu 2013 37 61
49. Guschin Arthur"‘China, Iceland and the Arctic’" The Diplomat May 20 2015 at: https://thediplomat.com/2015/05/china-iceland-and-the-arctic/ last accessed on 1 November 2017
50. Han Deukhoon (Peter), Lee Sung-Woo"‘Rights, Interests, Positions and Practices of Asian Flag States, with Special Reference to the Republic of Korea’" Beckman Robert C. , et al Governance of Arctic Shipping: Balancing Rights and Interests of Arctic States and User States Brill/Nijhoff Leiden/Boston 2017 299 317
51. Harper Stephen"‘Prime Minister Stephen Harper announces new Arctic Offshore Patrol Ships’" 9 July 2007 at: https://www.canada.ca/en/news/archive/2007/07/prime-minister-stephen-harper-announces-new-arctic-offshore-patrol-ships.html last accessed on 1 November 2017
52. Hartsig Andrew , et al"‘Arctic Bottleneck: Protecting the Bering Strait from Increased Vessel Traffic’" 2012Vol 10 Ocean and Coastal Law Journal 35 87
53. Headland R.K."‘Ten decades of transits of the Northwest Passage’" 2010Vol 33 Polar Geography 1 2 [Crossref]
54. Henriksen Tore"‘Norway, Denmark (in respect of Greenland) and Iceland’" Beckman Robert C. , et al Governance of Arctic Shipping Brill/Nijhoff Leiden/Boston 2017 245 [Crossref]
55. Hertell Hans H."‘Arctic melt: the tipping point for an Arctic Treaty’" 2009Vol 21 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 565 589
56. Hirschfeld Davis Julie"‘Obama, Visiting Arctic, Will Pledge Aid to Alaskans Hit by Climate Change’" The New York Times 2 September 2015 at: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/03/us/politics/obama-arctic-alaska-climate-change.html?_r=0 last accessed on 1 November 2017
57. Ho Joshua H."‘The Arctic Meltdown and Its Implications for Ports and Shipping in Asia’" Kraska James Arctic Security in an Age of Climate Change Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2011 33 43 [Crossref]
58. Honderich John Arctic Imperative: Is Canada Losing the North? University of Toronto Press Toronto 1987
59. Huebert Rob"‘Article 234 and Marine Pollution Jurisdiction in the Arctic’" Oude Elferink Alex G, Rothwell Donald R. The Law of the Sea and Polar Maritime Delimitation and Jurisdiction The Hague Martinus Nijhoff The Hague 2001 249 267
60. Jabour Julia, Weber Melissa"‘Is it Time to Cut the Gordian Knot of Polar Sovereignty?’" 2008Vol 17 Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 27 40 [Crossref]
61. Jakes Lara"‘Critics lukewarm on plans in Arctic’" Battleboro Reformer May 13 2013 at: http://www.reformer.com/stories/critics-lukewarm-on-plans-in-arctic,382452 last accessed on 1 November 2017
62. Jares Vladimir"‘The Continental Shelf Beyond 200 Nautical Miles: The Work of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf and the Arctic’" 2009Vol 42 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 1265 1306
63. Jennings R., Watts A. 1992), Oppenheim’s International Law 9thVol vol I Pts 2–4 Longman Harlow, UK
64. Jensen Leif Christian, Hønneland Geir Handbook of the Politics of the Arctic Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK 2015
65. Jessup Phillip C., Taubenfeld Howard J Controls for Outer Space and the Antarctic Analogy Columbia University Press New York 1959
66. Jia Bing Bing"‘Article 39 Duties of ships and aircraft during transit passage’" Proelss Alexander United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: A Commentary C.H. Beck/Hart/Nomos Müchen/Oxford/Baden-Baden 2017 300 305
67. Joling Dan"‘us Coast Guard studies shipping lanes for Bering Sea routes’" Alaska Dispatch News 17 November 2015), at: https://www.adn.com/arctic/article/coast-guard-studies-shipping-lanes-bering-sea-routes/2015/11/17/ last accessed on 1 November 2017
68. Kaye Stuart B. The Torres Strait Martinus Nijhoff Boston 1997
69. Klein Natalie Maritime Security and the Law of the Sea Oxford University Press Oxford 2011 [Crossref]
70. Koivurova Timo, VanderZwaag David L."‘The Arctic Council at 10 years: retrospect and prospects’" 2007Vol 40 University of British Columbia Law Review 121 194
71. Koivurova Timo"‘Environmental protection in the Arctic and Antarctic: can the polar regimes learn from each other?’" 2005Vol 33 International Journal of Legal Information 204 281
72. Koivurova Timo"‘Limits and possibilities of the Arctic Council in a rapidly changing scene of Arctic governance’”" 2010Vol 46 237 Polar Record 146 [Crossref]
73. Koivurova Timo"‘The Actions of Arctic States Respecting the Continental Shelf: A Reflective Essay’" 2011Vol 42 Ocean Development and International Law 211 226 [Crossref]
74. Kramer Andrew E."‘Polar thaw opens shortcut for Russian gas; New shipping lanes ease access to Chinese market for energy companies’" 9 July 2013 International Herald Tribune 14
75. Kraska James Arctic Security in a Age of Climate Change Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2011
76. Kraska James"‘Governance of Ice-Covered Areas: Rule Construction in the Arctic Ocean’" 2014Vol 45 Ocean Development and International Law 260 271 [Crossref]
77. Kraska James"‘The Northern Canada Vessel Traffic Services Zone Regulations (NORDREG) and the Law of the Sea’" 2015Vol 30 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 225 254 [Crossref]
78. Lackenbauer P. Whitney, Manicom James"‘Asian states and the Arctic: national perspectives on regional governance’" Jensen Leif Christian, Hønneland Geir Handbook of the Politics of the Arctic Edward Elgar Cheltenham (UK) 2015 517 [Crossref]
79. Leifer Michael International Straits of the World: Malacca, Singapore and Indonesia Sijthoff & Noordhoff Alphen Aan Den Rijn 1978
80. Macnab Ron"‘“Use it or lose it” in Arctic Canada: action agenda or election hype?’" 2009Vol 34 Vermont Law Review 3 14
81. McDorman Ted L."‘In the Wake of the Polar Sea: Canadian Jurisdiction and the Northwest Passage’" 1986Vol 10 Marine Policy 243 257 [Crossref]
82. McDorman Ted L. Salt Water Neighbors: International Ocean Law Relations between the United States and Canada Oxford University Press New York 2009
83. McRae D.M., Goundrey D.J."‘Environmental Jurisdiction in the Arctic Waters: The Extent of Article 234’" 1982Vol 16 University of British Colombia Law Review 197 228
84. Mendez Tessa"‘Thin Ice, Shifting Geopolitics: The Legal Implications of Arctic Ice Melt’" 2009–2010Vol 38 Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 527 547
85. Milman Oliver, Smith David, Carrington Damian"‘Donald Trump confirms US will quit Paris climate agreement’" The Guardian 2 June 2017 at: https://www.theguardian.com/environauticalmilesent/2017/jun/01/donald-trump-confirms-us-will-quit-paris-climate-deal last accessed on 1 November 2017
86. Molenaar E.J."‘Arctic Marine Shipping: Overview of the International Legal Framework, Gaps, and Options’" 2009Vol 18 Journal of Transnational Law and Policy 289 325
87. Molenaar Erik J."‘The Arctic, the Arctic Council, and the Law of the Sea’" Beckman Robert C. , et al Governance of Arctic Shipping: Balancing Rights and Interests of Arctic States and User States Brill/Nijhoff Leiden/Boston 2017 24
88. Molenaar Erik Jaap Coastal State Jurisdiction over Vessel-Source Pollution Kluwer Law International The Hague 1998
89. Morris Michael A. The Strait of Magellan Martinus Nijhoff Dordrecht 1989
90. Nandan Satya N., Rosenne Shabtai United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982: A Commentary Vol Vol II Martinus Nijhoff Dordrecht 1993
91. Nash Marian Cumulative Digest of United States Practice in International Law 1981–1988 Book II Department of State Washington 1994
92. Nihan Ünlü The legal regime of the Turkish Straits Martinus Nijhoff The Hague 2002
93. Nilsen Thomas"‘Murmansk and Arkhangelsk population continues to decline’" The Independent Barents Observer September 28 2017 at: https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/life-and-public/2017/09/murmansk-and-arkhangelsk-population-continues-decline last accessed on 1 November 2017
94. Ostreng Willy"‘The Northern Sea Route: a new era in Soviet policy?’" 1991Vol 22 Ocean Development and International Law 259 287 [Crossref]
95. Oude Elferink Alex G."‘Maritime Delimitation Between Denmark/Greenland and Norway’" 2007Vol 38 Ocean Development and International Law 375 380 [Crossref]
96. Oude Elferink Alex G."‘The Arctic Sunrise incident: a multi-faceted law of the sea case with a human rights dimension’" 2014Vol 29 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 244 289 [Crossref]
97. Pharand Donat"‘Canada’s Sovereignty over the Northwest Passage’" 1989Vol 10 Michigan Journal of International Law 653
98. Pharand Donat"‘Sovereignty in the Arctic: The International Legal Context’" Dosman Edgar J. Sovereignty and Security in the Arctic London Routledge, London 1989 145
99. Pharand Donat"‘The Arctic Waters and the Northwest Passage: A Final Revisit’" 2007Vol 38 Ocean Development and International Law 3 [Crossref]
100. Pharand Donat"‘The Northwest Passage in International Law’" 1979Vol 17 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 99
101. Pharand Donat Canada’s Arctic Waters in International Law Cambridge University Press Cambridge 1988 [Crossref]
102. Pharand Donat The Law of the Sea of the Arctic with Special Reference to Canada University of Ottawa Press Ottawa 1973
103. Pharand Donat The Northwest Passage Arctic Straits Martinus Nijhoff Dordrecht 1984
104. Powell Richard C., Dodds Klaus Polar Geopolitics? Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK 2014
105. President of the United States National Strategy for the Arctic Region White House Washington 2013
106. Pullen T.C."‘What Price Canadian Sovereignty?’" 1987Vol 113 9 Proceedings of the US Naval Institute 66
107. Purver R."‘Security and arms control at the poles’" 1984Vol XXXIX International Journal 888 [Crossref]
108. Richter-Menge J., Overland J.E., Mathis J."‘Arctic Report Card: Update for 2016’" December 6 2016 at: http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/Report-Card/Report-Card-2016/ArtMID/5022/ArticleID/270/Executive-Summary last accessed on 1 November 2017
109. Roach Ashley, Smith Robert W. Excessive Maritime Claims 3rd Martinus Nijhoff Leiden 2012 [Crossref]
110. Roach J. Ashley"‘The Polar Code and Its Adequacy’" Beckman Robert C. , et al Governance of Arctic Shipping Brill/Nijhoff Leiden/Boston 2017 144 [Crossref]
111. Roach John"‘Arctic Ice at All-Time Low’" National Geographic News August 20 2007 at: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/08/070820–global-warming.html last accessed on 1 November 2017
112. Roach John"“Arctic Melt Opens Northwest Passage”" National Geographic News September 17 2007 at: http://news.nationalgeographoc.com/news/pf/38614724.html last accessed on 1 November 2017
113. Rothwell Donald R."‘International Straits and UNCLOS: An Australian Case Study’" 1992Vol 23 Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 461 483
114. Rothwell Donald R., Stephens Tim The International Law of the Sea 2nd Hart Oxford 2016
115. Rothwell Donald R."‘Arctic sovereignty and its legal significance for Canada’" Jensen Leif Christian, Hønneland Geir Handbook of the Politics of the Arctic Edward Elgar Cheltenham (UK) 2015 247 261 [Crossref]
116. Rothwell Donald R."‘Canada and the United States’" Beckman Robert C. , et al Governance of Arctic Shipping: Balancing Rights and Interests of Arctic States and User States Brill/Nijhoff Leiden/Boston 2017 217
117. Rothwell Donald R."‘Polar Oceans Governance in the Twenty-First Century’" 2012Vol 26 Ocean Yearbook 343 360 [Crossref]
118. Rothwell Donald R."‘Polar opposites: environmental discourses and management in Antarctica and the Arctic’" Jessup Brad, Rubenstein Kim Environmental Discourses in Public and International Law Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2012 355 374 [Crossref]
119. Rothwell Donald R."‘The Arctic in International Affairs: Time for a New Regime?’" 2008Vol XV 1 Brown Journal of World Affairs 241 253
120. Rothwell Donald R."‘The Canadian – U.S. Northwest Passage Dispute: A Reassessment’" 1993Vol 26 Cornell International Law Journal 331 372
121. Rothwell Donald R. The Polar Regions and the Development of International Law Cambridge University Press Cambridge 1996
122. Rothwell Donald R."‘The Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy and International Environmental Cooperation in the Far North’" 1995Vol 6 Yearbook of International Environmental Law 65 105 [Crossref]
123. Sevunts Levon"‘Census 2016: Nunavut leads Canada’s population growth’" Eye on the Arctic 8 February 2017 at: http://www.rcinet.ca/eye-on-the-arctic/2017/02/08/census-2016–nunavut-leads-canadas-population-growth/ last accessed on 1 November 2017
124. Shaw M.N. International Law 6th Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2008 [Crossref]
125. Smedal G. Acquisition of Sovereignty over Polar Areas I Kommisjon Hos Jacob Dybwad Oslo 1931
126. Solski Jan"‘Russia’" Beckman Robert C. , et al Governance of Arctic Shipping Brill/Nijhoff Leiden/Boston 2017 173 216
127. Staalesen Atle"‘China is building its second icebreaker domestically’" Arctic Now 28 September 2017 at: https://www.arcticnow.com/business/shipping/2017/09/28/china-is-building-its-second-icebreaker-domestically/ last accessed on 1 November 2017
128. Staalesen Atle"‘Terrorism is coming to the Arctic, Putin fears’" The Independent Barents Observer December 29 2015 at: https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/security/2015/12/terrorism-coming-arctic-putin-fears last accessed on 1 November 2017
129. Stephens Tim"‘The Arctic and Antarctic Regimes and the Limits of Polar Comparativism’" 2011Vol 54 German Yearbook of International Law 315 349
130. Stevenson C."‘Hans off! The struggle for Hans Island and the potential ramifications for international border dispute resolution’" 2007Vol 30 Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 263 275
131. Svarlien O."‘The Sector Principle in Law and Practice’" 1960Vol 10 Polar Record 248 263 [Crossref]
132. Thomas A.R., Duncan James C."‘Annotated Supplement to The Commanders Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations’" 1999Vol 73 International Legal Studies 205
133. Timchenko Leonid"‘The Northern Sea Route: Russian Management and Jurisdiction over Navigation in Arctic Seas’" Oude Elferink Alex G., Rothwell Donald R. The Law of the Sea and Polar Maritime Delimitation and Jurisdiction Martinus Nijhoff The Hague 2001 269 291
134. Titley David W., St. John Courtney C."‘Arctic Security Considerations and the U.S. Navy’s “Arctic Roadmap”’" Kraska James Arctic Security in an Age of Climate Change Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2011 267 280 [Crossref]
135. Triggs Gillian D. International Law and Australian Sovereignty in Antarctica Legal Books Sydney 1986
136. Truver Scott C. The Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sijthoff & Noordhoff Alphen Aan Den Rijn 1980
137. United States Coast Guard Arctic Strategy United States Coast Guard Washington 2013
138. United States of America"‘Arctic Region Policy’" National Security Presidential Directive/nspd – 66; Homeland Security Presidential Directive/hspd – 25 9 January 2009
139. Valencia Mark J., Jaafar Abu Bakar"‘Environautical milesental Management of the Malacca – Singapore Straits: legal and institutional issues’" 1985Vol 25 Natural Resources Journal 195 232
140. Vidas Davor Protecting the Polar Marine Environment: Law and Policy for Pollution Prevention Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2000
141. Wadhams Peter A Farewell to Ice Allen Lane London 2016
142. Walker George K."‘Definitions for the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention – Part II: Analysis of the iho Consolidated Glossary’" 2003Vol 33 California Western International Law Journal 219
143. Watson Molly"‘An Arctic treaty: a solution to the international dispute over the polar region’" 2009Vol 14 Ocean and Coastal Law Journal 307 334
144. Weber Bob"‘Canada, Denmark should turn Hans Island into a condominium: academics’" CBC News November 12 2015 at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/canada-denauticalmilesark-should-turn-hans-island-into-a-condominium-academics-1.3315640 last accessed on 1 November 2017
145. Weber Mel"‘Defining the outer limits of the continental shelf across the Arctic basin: the Russian submission, states’ rights, boundary delimitation and Arctic regional cooperation’" 2009Vol 24 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 653 681 [Crossref]
146. Young Oran R., Kim Jong Deog, Kim Yoon Hyung The Arctic in World Affairs Korea Maritime Institute/East-West Centre Seoul/Honolulu 2013
147. Yuan woon Chih"‘China, Canada and framings of Arctic geopolitics’" Powell Richard C., Dodds Klaus Polar Geopolitics? Edward Elgary Cheltenham (UK) 2014 166 182
148. Zellen Barry Scott"‘Where East and West converge: the US embrace of collaborative security for the Arctic’" Jensen Leif Christian, Hønneland Geir Handbook of the Politics of the Arctic Edward Elgar Cheltenham (UK) 2015 550 572 [Crossref]
149. Zysk Katarzyna"‘Military Aspects of Russia’s Arctic Policy: Hard Power and Natural Resources’" Kraska James Arctic Security in an Age of Climate Change Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2011 85 106 [Crossref]
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/24519359-12340103
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/24519359-12340103
2017-12-26
2018-09-18

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Brill Research Perspectives in the Law of the Sea — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation