Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

A Case of Religious Architecture in Elymais: The Tetrastyle Temple of Bard-e Neshandeh

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Annali Sezione Orientale

This study provides a new approach and interpretation of a remote Elymaean tetrastyle temple found in the course of excavations conducted at the sacred terraces of Bard-e Neshandeh in the mid-19th century. Perched on the heights of the Zagros mountains in the current province of Khuzestan (SW Iran), the shrine on the lower terrace reflects an innovative synthesis of structural elements engaging both Mesopotamian and Iranian templates and it occupies a special place in the records of temple architecture of the Iranian world before the Sasanid conquest. According to this investigation, a re-evaluation of the tetrastyle temple is proposed in order that it will yield new insights and progress of understanding on the cultic monumental apparatus in Hellenistic and Parthian Elymais.1

Affiliations: 1: Macquarie University Sydney


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Abdullaev A."Report of the Pyandzh Archaeological Team for 1985"Arkheologicheskie Raboty v Tadzhikistane1994Vol 25171179
2. Álvarez-Mon J."Platform Bearers from Kul-e Farah iii and vi"Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies2010Vol 482741
3. Álvarez-Mon J. Potts D.T."Elam: Iran’s First Empire"A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East2012Vol 2Hoboken74057
4. Álvarez-Mon J. Potts D.T."Khuzestan in the Bronze Age"The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran2013Oxford217232
5. Álvarez-Mon J. Brown B.A., Feldman M.H."Aesthetics of the Natural Environment in the Arts of the Ancient Near East: The Elamite Rock-Cut Sanctuary of Kurangun"Critical Approaches to Ancient Near Eastern Art2014Boston-Berlin741771
6. Álvarez-Mon J."Platforms of Exaltation: Elamite Sculptural Reliefs from the Highlands: Kūl-e Farah vi"Elamica2015Vol 4148
7. Andrae W.Der Anu-Adad Temple1909LeipzigWissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft 10
8. Askarov A."Raskopki Psahktepe na iuge Uzbekistana [Excavations of Pshak-Tepe in the South of Uzbekistan]"Istorija Material’noj Kul’tury Uzbekistana1982Vol 73041
9. Askarov A., Shirinov T."The Palace, Temple and Necropolis of Jarkutan"Bulletin of Asia Institute1994Vol 81326
10. Augé C., et alTerrasses sacrées de Bard-è Néchandeh et Masjid-i Solaiman. Les trouvailles monétaires1979ParisMémoires de la Délégation Archéologique en Iran 44
11. Bernard P."Quatrième campagne de fouilles à Aï Khanoum (Bactriane)"Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres1969313355
12. Bernard P."Les traditions orientales dans l’architecture gréco-bactrienne"Journal Asiatique1976Vol 264245275
13. Bernard P."L’architecture religieuse de l’Asie Centrale à l’époque hellénistique"1990Akten des XIII. Internationalen Kongresses für klassische Archäologie1988BerlinMainz5159
14. Bivar A.D.H. Cereti C."Cosmopolitan Deities and Hellenistic Traces at Kuh-e Khwaja in Sistan"Religious Themes and Texts of Pre-Islamic Iran and Central Asia2003Wiesbaden16
15. Boese J.Ausgrabungen in Tell Sheikh Hassan1995Berlin
16. Boroffka N. Hansen S., Wieczorek A., Tellenbach M."Siedlungsgeschichte in Nordbaktrien—Bandichan zwischen Spätbronzezeit und Frühmittelalter"Alexander der Große und die Öffnung der Welt. Asiens Kulturen im Wandel2009Mannheim135153
17. Boucharlat R."Chahar taq et temple du feu sassanide: quelques remarques"De l’Indus aux Balkans. Recueil à la mémoire de J. Deshayes1985Paris461478
18. Boucharlat‚ R. Curtis J."Susa under the Achaemenian Rule‚"Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period: Conquest and Imperialism 539–331 BC1997London5468
19. Boucharlat R."Villes, palais et temples"Dossiers d’Archéologie1999Vol 2433035(Empires perses)
20. Boucharlat R. Boucharlat R., Briant P."Iran"L’Archéologie de l’empire achéménide: nouvelles recherches2005Paris221283
21. Boyce M., Grenet F."On the Western Edge of the Iranian Plateau: Susa and Elymais"A History of Zoroastrianism, III. Zoroastrianism under Macedonian and Roman Rule1991Leiden-Köln3548Handbuch der Orientalistik
22. Callieri P.Saidu Sharif I (Swāt, Pakistan). The Buddhist Sacred Area. The Monastery1989RomaIsMEO Reports and Memories 23
23. Callieri P. Fontana M.V., Genito B."Some Notes on the So-called Temple of the Fratarakas at Persepolis"Studi in onore di Umberto Scerrato per il suo settantacinquesimo compleanno2003Napoli153165Series Minor 65
24. Callieri P."Hellenistic Art on the Iranian Plateau: Movement of Objects, Movement of People"Journal of Historical, Philological and Cultural Studies2015Vol 11220
25. Colledge M.The Parthian Period1986Leiden
26. Dandamaev M.A., Lukonin V.G.The Culture and Social Institutions of Ancient Iran2004Cambridge
27. De Jong A.Traditions of the Magi: Zoroastrianism in Greek and Latin Literature1997Leyden
28. Downey S.B.Mesopotamian Religious Architecture. Alexander through the Parthians1988Princeton
29. Downey S.B."Zeus the Greatest in Syria"Parthica2004Vol 611729
30. Duke K."Пшактепа—памятник культуры северной Бактрии"Общественные науки в. Узбекистане1974Vol 123638
31. Erdmann K.Das iranische Feuerheiligtum1941LeipzigSendschrift der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 2
32. Francfort H.-P. Deshayes J."Le plan des maisons gréco-bactriennes et le problème des structures de « type megaron » en Asie Centrale et en Iran"Le Plateau Iranien et l’Asie Centrale dès origines â la conquête islamique1977Paris267280
33. Francfort H.-P. Briant P., Boucharlat R."Asie Centrale"L’archéologie de l’empire achéménide: nouvelles recherches2005Paris313352Persika 6
34. Fussman G.Surkh Kotal. Tempel der Kuschan-Zeit in Baktrien1983Munich
35. Gagoshidze J."Le temples de l’époque préchrétienne en Géorgie"IV Symposium International sur l’Art Géorgien1983Tbilisi112
36. Gagoshidze J."The Temples at Dedoplis Mindori"East and West1992Vol 422748
37. Ghanimati S."New Perspectives in the Chronological and Functional Horizons of Kuh-i Khwaja in Sistan"Iran2000Vol 3813750
38. Ghirshman R."Masjid-i-Soleiman. Résidence des premiers Achéménides"Syria1950Vol 2720520
39. Ghirshman R."Bard-è Nechandeh. Rapport préliminaire"Syria1964aVol 41301321
40. Ghirshman R."Bard-è Nechandeh"Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres1964bVol 1081185196
41. Ghirshman R."Bard-è Nechandeh: Rapport préliminaire de la seconde campagne (Mars 1965)"Syria1965Vol 42289310
42. Ghirshman R.Terrasses sacrées de Bard-è Néchandeh et Masjid-i Solaiman. L’Iran du Sud-Ouest du VIII s. av. n. ère au V s. de n. ère1976ParisMémoires de la Délégation Archéologique en Iran 44
43. Gnoli G.Zoroaster’s Time and Homeland1980Naples
44. Gnoli G.Zoroaster in History2000New York
45. Godard A."Les monuments du feu"Athar-e Iran1938Vol 3780
46. Godard A."Bard Neshāndè"Athar-e Iran1949Vol 4153162
47. Gopnik H. Curtis J., Simpson J."Why Columned Halls?"The World of Achaemenid Persia. History, Art and Society in Iran and in Ancient Near East2010London195207
48. Görsdorf V.G., Huff D."C-Datierungen von Materialien aus der Grabun Džarkutan, Uzbekistan"Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran2001Vol 337587
49. Grantovskij E. A.Iran i irancy do Axemenidov1998Moscow
50. Grenet F."Palais ou palais-temple? Remarques sur la publication du monument de Toprak-kala"Studia Iranica1986Vol 1512335
51. Gullini G.Architettura iranica dagli Achemenidi ai Sasanidi1964Torino
52. Haerinck E.La céramique en Iran pendant la période parthe (ca. 250 av. J.C. à ca. 225 après J.C.): typologie, chronologie et distribution1983GentIranica Antiqua. Suppl. ii)
53. Haerinck E."Again on Tang- i Sarvak ii, ne-side. Goddesses do not Have Moustaches and do not Wear Trousers"Iranica Antiqua2003Vol 38221245
54. Haller A., Andrae W.Die Heiligtümer des Gottes Assur und der Sin-Shamash Tempel in Assur1956BerlinWissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft 67)
55. Hannestad L., Potts D. Bilde P., et al"Temple Architecture in the Seleucid Kingdom"Religion and Religious Practice in the Seleucid Kingdom1990Aarhus91124
56. Hansman J.F."Seleucia and the Three Douraks"Iran. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies1978Vol 1615460
57. Hansman J.F. Bailey H.W., et al"The Great Gods of Elymais"Papers in Honour of Professor Mary Boyce1985Paris229246Acta Iranica 24
58. Henkelman W.F.MThe Other Gods Who Are: Studies in Elamite-Iranian Acculturation Based on the Persepolis Fortification Texts2008LeidenAchaemenid History 14
59. Henkelman W.F.M, Khaksar S. Eneix L.C."Elam’s Dormant Sound: Landscape, Music and the Divine in Ancient Iran"Archaeoacoustics: The Archaeology of Sound. Publication of Proceedings from the 2014 Conference in Malta2014Myakka City211231
60. Henning W.B."The Monuments and Inscriptions of Tang-i Sarvak"Asia Major1952Vol 2151178
61. Herzfeld E."Iran in the Ancient East"Archaeological Studies presented in Lowell Lectures at Boston1941Oxford
62. Hopkins C."The Parthian Temple"Berytus1942Vol 71118
63. Huff D."Sasanian Čahar Taqs in Fars"Proceedings of the IIIrd Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran 19741975Tehran243254
64. Huff D. Overlaet B., Ruyssinck M."Architecture sassanide"Splendeur des Sassanides1993Bruxelles4561
65. Hunger H., Sachs A.Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia III: Diaries from 164 BC to 61 BC1996ViennaÖsterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophische-historische Klasse, Denkschriften 247
66. Invernizzi A."Die hellenistischen Grundlagen der frühparthischen Kunst"Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran (AMI)1994Vol 27191203
67. Invernizzi A."Arsacid Dynastic Art"Parthica2001Vol 3133157
68. Invernizzi A."Representations of Gods in Parthian Nisa"Parthica2005Vol 77179
69. Invernizzi A., Lippolis C.Nisa Partica: Ricerche nel complesso monumentale arsacide (1990-2006)2008FirenzeMonografie di Mesopotamia 9
70. Kawami T.Monumental Art of the Parthian Period in Iran1987aParisActa Iranica 26
71. Kawami T."Kuh-e Khwaja, Iran, and Its Wall Paintings"Metropolitan Museum Journal1987bVol 221352
72. Keall E."Partho-Sassanian Archaeology: a New Phase"Expedition. The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania1971Vol 133–45561
73. Kellens J."Zoroastre dans l’histoire ou dans le mythe? À propos du dernier livre de Gherardo Gnoli"Journal Asiatique2001Vol 289271184
74. Kleiss W."Terrassenanlagen in der iranischen Architektur"Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan1998Vol 30227268
75. Koshelenko G.S., et al"Mansur-depe Excavations"Bulletin of the Asia Institute1989Vol 34552
76. Koshelenko G.S., et al"The Mansur-depe Excavations of 1986–1987"Parthica2000Vol 287125
77. Kropp A."Limits of Hellenisation: Pre-Roman Basalt Temples in the Hauran"2010Bollettino di Archeologia on line. Direzione Generale per le Antichità. International Congress of Classical Archaeology. Meetings between Cultures in the Ancient Mediterranean2008Roma118
78. Litvinskiy B.A., Pichikyan I.R.Ellinisticheskiy khram Oksa v Baktrii2000Moscow1
79. Martinez-Sève L."Les figurines de Masjid-i Soleiman et les relations entre Suse et l’Élymaïde"Parthica2004Vol 6179201
80. Martinez-Sève L. Estienne S., et al"La représentation des dieux dans la Suse hellénistique: de l’identité culturelle à la réalité cultuelle"Image et religion dans l’Antiquité gréco-romaine2008Paris357367Collection du Centre Jean Bérard 28
81. Martinez-Sève L."Les sanctuaires autochtones dans le monde iranien d’époque hellénistique: un problème de définition"Topoi: Orient Occident2014Vol 191239277
82. Mathiesen H.E.Sculpture in the Parthian Empire. A Study in Chronology1992Vol I–IIAarhus
83. Messina V.Hung-e Azhdar. Research of the Iranian-Italian Joint Expedition in Khuzestan 2008-2011)2015aPisa-RomaParthica 17
84. Messina V.Gli dei dell’altopiano. Santuari rupestri dell’antica Elimaide2015bTorino181204Accademia delle Scienze Torino 149
85. Messina V., Mehr Kian J."Return to Shami. Preliminary Survey of the Iranian-Italian Joint Expedition in Khuzestan at Kal-e Chendar"Iran2014Vol 526577
86. Miroschedji P de Miller N., Abdieds K."Susa and the Highlands, Major Trends in the History of Elamite Civilization"Yeki bud, yeki nabud: Essays on the Archaeology of Iran in Honor of William Sumner2003Los Angeles1738Costen Institute of Archeology Monograph 48
87. Mousavi A."Kuh-e Khadjeh: un complexe religieux de l’est iranien"Dossiers d’Archéologie1999Vol 2438185(Empires perses)
88. Netzer E.Nabatäische Architektur2003Mainz
89. Pidaev S.R."Otkrytie novogo pamjatnika serediny I tycjačeletija do našej ery"Obščestvennye Nauki v Uzbekistane1973Vol 117782
90. Pidaev S.R. Masson V.M."Materialy k izučeniju drevnix pamjatnikov severnoj Baktrii"Drevnjaja Baktrija. Predvaritel’nye soobščenija ob arxeologičeskix rabotax na juge Uzbekistana1974Leningrad3242
91. Pilipko V.N.Staraya Nisa. Zdanie s kvadratnym zalom1996Moscow
92. Potts D.The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State1999Cambridge
93. Potts D. von Folsach K., Thrane H., Thuesen I."The Numinous and the iImmanent: Some Thoughts on Kurangun and the Rudkhaneh-e Fahliyan"From Handaxe to Khan: Essays Presented to Peder Mortensen on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday2004Aarhus143156
94. Potts D.The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State Second Edition2016Cambridge
95. Pugachenkova G.A."K arkhitekturnoy tipologii v zodchestve Baktrii i Parfii [Contribution to the Architectural Typology of Bactria and Eastern Parthia]"Vestnik Drevnej Istorii1973Vol 112131
96. P’yankov I.V."Zoroastr v istorii Sredney Azii: problema mesta i vremeni"Vestnik Drevnej Istorii1996Vol 3323
97. Rapin C. Invernizzi A."Indo-Greeks and Vishnuism: on an Indian Object from the Sanctuary of the Oxus and Two Temples in Taxila"In the Land of the Gryphons1995Florence275291
98. Rapin C. Cribb J., Herrmann G."Nomads and the Shaping of CentralAsia: From the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period"After Alexander: Central Asia Before Islam2007Oxford2972
99. Rapin C., et al"La tombe d’une princesse nomade à Koktepe près de Samarkand"Comptes-rendus de l’Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres2001Vol 1453392
100. Rapin C., et al"Koktepe, ville jumelle de Maracanda"Dossiers d’Archéologie2010Vol 3412022(Samarcande, cité mythique au cœur de l’Asie)
101. Rapoport Yu.A."The Palaces of Topraq-Qal‘a"Bulletin of the Asia Institute1994Vol 816186
102. Sagdullaev A.S., Khakimov Z.A."Arkheologicheskoe izuchenie gorodishcha Kyzyl-teoe (po itogam rabot 1973–1974 g.) [The Archaeological investigation of the town of Qizil-tepe (on the basis of the work of 1973–1974)]"Baktriiskie drevnosti. Predvaritel’nye soobshcheniia ob arkheologicheskikh rabotakh na iuge Uzbekistana [Bactrian Antiquities. Preliminary Notices on Archaeological Work in South Uzbekistan]1976Leningrad
103. Sarianidi V.I."Proiskhozhdenie iranskikh khramov ognya"1996Convegno internazionale sul tema: La Persia e l’Asia Centrale da Alessandro al X secolo9–12 novembre 1994RomaRoma319329
104. Schippmann K.Die iranischen Feuerheiligtümer1971Berlin—New York
105. Schlumberger D.The Excavations at Surkh Kotal and the Problem of Hellenism in Bactria and India1961LondonProceedings of the British Academy 47
106. Schlumberger D.Sur la nature des temples de Surkh Kotal1975MoscowCentral’naja Aziya v Kushanskuyu epokhu 2
107. Schlumberger D., Le Berre M., Fussman G.Surkh Kotal en Bactriane. I. Les temples: architecture, sculpture, inscriptions1983ParisMémoires de la Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan 25
108. Shahbazi A.S."Recent Speculations on the ‘Traditional Date of Zoroaster’"Studia Iranica2002Vol 311745
109. Shaked S. Arnason J.P., Eisenstadt S.N., Wittrock B."Zoroastrian Origins: Indian and Iranian Connections"Axial Civilizations and World History2005Leiden183201
110. Shenkar M."Temple Architecture in the Iranian World before the Macedonian Conquest"Iran and the Caucasus2007Vol 112169194
111. Shenkar M. Kouromenos A., Chandrasekaran S., Rossi R."Temple Architecture in the Iranian World in the Hellenistic Period"From Pella to Gandhara. Hybridisation and Identity in the Art and Architecture of the Hellenistic East2011Oxford117140
112. Shkoda V.G.Pyandzhikenstkie khramy i problemy religii Sogda (V–VIII vv)2009 St. Petersburg
113. Siroux M."Masdjid-e Sulaiman"Athar-e Iran1938Vol 315760
114. Stausberg M.Die Religion Zarathushtras, Geschichte—Gegenwart—Rituale2002Stuttgart1
115. Stein A.Old Routes of Western Iran1940London
116. Stronach D."Achaemenid Village i at Susa and the Persian Migration to Fars"Iraq1974Vol 3623948
117. Stronach D. Bailey H.W., et al"On the Evolution of the Early Iranian Fire Temple"Papers in Honour of Professor Mary Boyce1985Paris605627Acta Iranica 24
118. Tholbecq L."Les sanctuaires des Nabatéens. État de la question à la lumière des recherches archéologiques récentes"Topoi Orient-Occident1997Vol 7210691095
119. Unvala J.M."Ancient Sites in Susiana"Revue d’Assyriologie et d’Archéologie orientale1928Vol 258393
120. Vanden Berghe L.Reliefs rupestres de l’Iran ancien1983Bruxelles
121. Vanden Berghe L., Schippmann K."Les reliefs rupestres d’Elymaïde (Iran) de l’époque parthe"Iranica Antiqua1985Supplement IIIGent
122. Von Gall H."Das parthische Felsheiligtum von Tang-e Sarwak in der Elymais (Khuzestan). Neue Beobachtungen und Forschungsergebnisse"Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan2000Vol 3231959
123. Waters M.W.A Survey of Neo-Elamite History2000HelsinkiState Archives of Assyria Studies 12
124. Wright H.T.Archaeological Investigations in Northeastern Xuzestan, 19761979Ann ArborTechnical Reports 10

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Annali Sezione Orientale — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation