Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Bridging the Gaps: Methodological Challenges in the Study of Taiwanese Popular Religion

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

This paper critically assesses leading research on Taiwanese popular religion published during the past two decades, including by historians of religion and social scientists. It pays special attention to the challenges (and opportunities) provided by the study of Taiwan’s vibrant religious traditions, which have produced a wealth of textual materials yet can also be researched by using ethnographic methods and collecting survey data. Another conundrum that Taiwanese scholars face involves how to effectively utilise the ever-increasing body of data about religious life in modern Chinese history and among Chinese communities throughout the world. The review’s scope centres on research results from the past 20 years that examine temple cults and festivals; it will not discuss Buddhism, Daoism, Christianity, and other foreign religions, as well as the religions practiced by Taiwan’s indigenous peoples. However, it will occasionally mention scholarship on voluntary religious movements, especially those that perform spirit-writing rituals.

Affiliations: 1: Distinguished Research Fellow, Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, Taiwan,


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Allio Fiorella, (2003) ‘"Spatial organization in a ritual context: A preliminary analysis of the Koah-hiun processional system of the Taiwan region and its social significance’", in Lin Mei-rong (ed), Beliefs, Ritual, and Society: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Sinology, Academia Sinica , Taipei: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, 131177.
2. Baptandier Brigitte, (2008) The Lady of Linshui: A Chinese Female Cult , trans. Fryklund Kristin Ingrid, Stanford, ca: Stanford University Press.
3. Bell Catherine (1989) ‘"Religion and Chinese culture: Toward an assessment of “popular religion”’", History of Religions Vol 29(1): 3557.
4. Billioud Sébastien, and Joël Thoraval (2015) The Sage and the People: The Confucian Revival in China , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
5. Boretz Avron (2011) Gods, Ghosts, and Gangsters: Ritual Violence, Martial Arts, and Masculinity on the Margins of Chinese Society , Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
6. Broy Nikolas, (2012) ‘"Secret societies, Buddhist fundamentalists, or popular religious movements? Aspects of zhaijiao in Taiwan’", in Ke Ruopu (ed), Chinese and European Perspectives on the Study of Chinese Popular Religions (中國民間宗教、民間信仰研究之中歐視角), Taipei: Boyoung Publishing, 329369.
7. Chandler Stuart (2004) Establishing a Pure Land on Earth: The Foguang Buddhist Perspective on Modernization and Globalization , Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
8. Chang Hsun (張珣) (2003a) Cultural Mazu: Collection of Scholarly Articles on the Cult of Mazu in Taiwan (文化媽祖:臺灣媽祖信仰研究論文集), Taipei: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica.
9. Chang Hsun, (2003b) "‘Breaking circles: From “ritual spheres” to “post ritual spheres”’ (打破圈圈:從「祭祀圈」到「後祭祀圈」)", in Chiang Ts’an-t’eng, and Chang Hsun (eds), Searching for the Paradigm: New Perspectives on Taiwan Religious Studies (台灣本土宗教研究的新視野和新思維), Taipei: smc Publishing, 63107.
10. Chang Hsun, and Penny Benjamin (eds) (2017), Religion in Taiwan and China: Locality and Transmission , Taipei: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica.
11. Chao Shin-yi (趙昕毅) (2002) ‘"A danggi [童乩] temple in Taipei: Spirit-mediums in modern urban Taiwan’", Asia Major Vol 15(2): 129156.
12. Chen Shih-jung (陳世榮) (2001) "‘Local elites and the “public sphere” in northern Taoyuan during the Qing Dynasty’ (清代北桃園的地方菁英及「公共領域」)", National Chengchi University Historical Journal (國立政治大學歷史學報)Vol 18: 203242.
13. Chen Wei-hua (陳緯華) (2008) "‘The economy of magical power: A new perspective for the analysis of folk religion’ (靈力經濟:一個分析民間信仰活動的新視角)", Taiwan: A Radical Quarterly in Social Studies (台灣社會研究季刊)Vol 69: 57106.
14. Chiang Ts’an-t’eng (江燦騰) (ed) (2014) Collection of Leading Research Results on Taiwanese Religions (當代臺灣宗教研究精粹論集), Taipei: Boyoung Publishing.
15. Chiang Ts’an-t’eng, and Chang Hsun (張珣) (eds) (2001) Reader in Contemporary Religious Studies in Taiwan (台灣本土宗教研究導論), Taipei: smc Publishing.
16. Chiang Ts’an-t’eng, and Chang Hsun (eds) (2003) Searching for the Paradigm: New Perspectives on Taiwan Religious Studies (台灣本土宗教研究的新視野和新思維), Taipei: smc Publishing.
17. Ching May-bo, (程美寶) (1996) ‘"Literary, ethnic, or territorial? Definitions of Guangdong culture in the late Qing and early Republic"’, in Liu Tao Tao, and Faure David (eds), Unity and Diversity. Local Cultures and Identities in China , Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 5166.
18. Chipman Elana (2008a) ‘"The local production of culture in Beigang’", Taiwan Journal of Anthropology Vol 6(1): 130.
19. Chipman Elana (2008b) ‘"The de-territorialization of ritual spheres in contemporary Taiwan’", Asian Anthropology Vol 8: 3164.
20. Cho Ke-hua (卓克華) (2006) Temples and the Settlement History of Taiwan (寺廟與台灣開發史), Taipei: Yangzhi wenhua shiye gufen youxian gongsi.
21. Chung Yun-ying (鍾雲鶯) (2015) "‘Saving inner nature and vital force and the dual cultivation of sacred and secular: Yiguandao’s concept of entering the world as self-cultivation’ (救性、救命與聖凡雙修:一貫道的入世修行觀)", Studies in Chinese Religions (華人宗教研究)Vol 6(6): 2758.
22. Clart Philip, (2009) ‘"Merit beyond measure: Notes on the moral (and real) economy of religious publishing in Taiwan"’, in Clart Philip, and Crowe Paul (eds), The People and the Dao: New Studies of Chinese Religions in Honour of Prof. Daniel L. Overmyer , Sankt Augustin: Institut Monumenta Serica, 127142.
23. Clart Philip (2011) ‘"Anchoring Guanyin: Appropriative strategies in a New Phoenix Hall Scripture’", Minsu quyi (民俗曲藝)Vol 173: 101128.
24. Clart Philip (2012) ‘"Mediums and the new media: The impact of electronic publishing on temple and moral economies in Taiwanese popular religion’", Journal of Sinological Studies Vol 3: 127141.
25. Clart Philip (a.k.a. Ruopu Ke, 柯若樸) (ed) (2012) Chinese and European Perspectives on the Study of Chinese Popular Religions (中國民間宗教、民間信仰研究之中歐視角), Taipei: Boyoung Publishing.
26. Clart Philip A., and Jones Charles B. (eds) (2003) Religion in Modern Taiwan: Tradition and Innovation in a Changing Society , Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
27. Dai Sike (戴思客, a.k.a. Lawrence Scott Davis) (1994) "‘Women and language: A sketch of a rhetoric of Shamanism’ (語與女:試探乩童修辭學)", Si yu yan (思與言)Vol 35(2): 267312.
28. Dean Kenneth, and Zheng Zhenman (2010) Ritual Alliances of the Putian Plain, Volume 1: Historical Introduction to the Return of the Gods, and Volume 2: A Survey of the Village Temples and Ritual Activities , Leiden and Boston: Brill.
29. Dell’Orto Alessandro (2002) Place and Spirit in Taiwan: Tudi Gong in the Stories, Strategies and Memories of Everyday Life , London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon.
30. Duara Prasenjit (2003) "Sovereignty and Authenticity". Manchukuo and the East Asian Modern , Lanham, md: Rowman & Littlefield.
31. DuBois Thomas D. (2011) Religion and the Making of Modern East Asia , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
32. Feuchtwang Stephan, (1974) ‘"City temples in Taipei under three regimes’", in Elvin Mark, and Skinner G. William (eds), The Chinese City Between Two Worlds , Stanford, ca: Stanford University Press, 263303.
33. Goossaert Vincent (2007) The Daoists of Peking, 1800–1949. A Social History of Urban Clerics , Harvard East Asian Monographs, No. 284, Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press.
34. Goossaert Vincent, and Palmer David A. (2011) The Religious Question in Modern China , Chicago, il: University of Chicago Press.
35. Hatfield D.J.W. (2010), Taiwanese Pilgrimage to China: Ritual, Complicity, Community , New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
36. Hong Ying-fa (洪瑩發) (2014) "‘The Daoist Jiao Ritual at the Melaka Yong Chuan Tien Temple’ (威顯南邦:馬來西亞馬六甲勇全殿的王醮)", Minsu quyi Vol 184: 59103.
37. Hsu Yu-tsuen (徐雨村) (2016) "‘Recognition, designation, and local practice of “folk custom and related cultural artifacts”: An example of “Yunlin Liu Fang Ma Guolu”’ (「民俗及有關文物」登錄指定與地方實踐:以「雲林六房媽過爐」為例)", Minsu quyi Vol 192: 221265.
38. Huang Mei-ying (黃美英) (1994) Incense Fire and Ritual in Taiwan’s Mazu Cults (台灣媽祖的香火與儀式), Taipei: Zili wanbao chubanbu.
39. Huang Ping-ying (黃萍瑛) (2008) On the Worship of ‘Lonely Maiden’ Ghost Cults in Taiwan: A Social Historical Study (臺灣民間信仰「孤娘」的奉祀:一個社會史的考察), Panchiao: Daoxiang Publishing.
40. Huang Ping-ying (2014) "‘The religious life of contemporary female disciples of the Phoenix: A case study of Yuhua Tang in Puli’ (當代埔里鸞生的宗教生活:以育化堂女鸞為考察中心)", Minsu quyi Vol 184: 279334.
41. Jansen Thomas,; Klein Thoralf, and Meyer Christian (eds) (2014) Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China: Transnational Religions, Local Agents, and the Study of Religion, 1800-Present , Leiden: Brill.
42. Jia Jinhua,; Kang Xiaofei, and Yao Ping (eds) (2014) Gendering Chinese Religion , Albany: State University of New York Press.
43. Jordan David K., (1994) ‘"Changes in postwar Taiwan and their impact on the popular practice of religion’", in Harrell Stevan A., and Huang Chün-chieh (eds), Cultural Change in Postwar Taiwan , Boulder, co: Westview Press, 137160.
44. Jordan David K., and Overmyer Daniel L. (1986) The Flying Phoenix: Aspects of Chinese Sectarianism in Taiwan , Princeton, nj: Princeton University Press.
45. Katz Paul R. (2001) ‘"Festival systems and the division of ritual labor: A case study of the An-fang at Hsin-chuang’s Ti-tsang An’", Minsu quyi Vol 130: 57124.
46. Katz Paul R. (2003) ‘"Religion and the state in postwar Taiwan’", The China Quarterly Vol 174: 395412.
47. Katz Paul R. (2005) When Valleys Turned Blood Red: The Ta-pa-ni [噍吧哖] Incident in Colonial Taiwan , Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
48. Katz Paul R. (2007) ‘"Orthopraxy and heteropraxy beyond the state: Standardizing ritual in Chinese society’", Modern China Vol 33(1): 7290.
49. Katz Paul R. (2011) ‘"Spirit-writing halls and the development of local communities: A case study of Puli (Nantou County)’", Minsu quyi Vol 174: 103184.
50. Katz Paul R. (2012) ‘"An unbreakable thread? Preliminary observations on the interaction between Chinese and Taiwanese religious traditions under Japanese colonial rule’", Research on Taiwan Religion (臺灣宗教研究)Vol 11(2): 3970.
51. Katz Paul R. (2014a) Religion in China and its Modern Fate , Waltham, ma: Brandeis University Press.
52. Katz Paul R., (2014b) "‘Illuminating goodness: Some preliminary considerations of religious publishing in modern China"’, in Clart Philip, and Scott Gregory Adam (eds), Religious Publishing and Print Culture in Modern China, 1800–2012 , Boston and Berlin: De Gruyter, 265294.
53. Katz Paul R., and Rubinstein Murray (2003) ‘"Introduction: The many meanings of identity’", in Katz and Rubinstein (eds), Religion and the Formation of Taiwanese Identities , New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 122.
54. Kuo Cheng-tian (郭承天) (2008) Religion and Democracy in Taiwan , Albany: State University of New York Press.
55. Li Shih-wei (李世偉) (1999) Taiwan Confucian Societies and their Activities during the Japanese Occupation (日據時代台灣儒教結社與活動), Taipei: Wenjin Publishing.
56. Li Shih-wei (2008) Taiwanese Buddhism, Confucianism, and Popular Beliefs: Selected Writings of Li Shih-wei (臺灣佛教、儒教與民間信仰:李世偉自選集), Luchou: Boyoung Publishing.
57. Lin Hui-cheng (林會承) (1999) "‘Village territory on the Pescadores Islands’ (澎湖社里的領域)", Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica Vol 87: 4196.
58. Lin Jung-tse (林榮澤) (2010) The History of the Growth of the Way of Pervading Unity (一貫道發展史), Taipei: Lantai Publishing.
59. Lin Mei-rong (林美容) (1986) "‘Local organizations in Caotun as seen through ritual spheres’ (由祭祀圈來看草屯鎮的地方組織)", Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica Vol 62: 53114.
60. Lin Mei-rong (2006) The Cult of Mazu and Taiwanese Society (媽祖信仰與臺灣社會), Luchou: Boyoung Publishing.
61. Lin Mei-rong, and Hsu Ku-ming, (許谷鳴) (2016) "‘Belief spheres of the Guandu Mazu cult’ (關渡媽祖的信仰圈)", in Lin Mei-rong,, Chang Hsun,, and Tsai Hsiang-hui (eds), Developments and Changes in the Cult of Mazu—Proceedings of the International Conference on the Cult of Mazu and Modern Society (媽祖信仰的發展與演變—媽祖信仰與現代社會國際研討會論文集), Taipei: Taiwan Association of Religious Studies, 117168.
62. Lin Wei-ping (林瑋嬪) (2015) Materializing Magic Power: Chinese Popular Religion in Villages and Cities , Cambridge, ma and London: Harvard University Press.
63. Liu Wenxing (劉文星) (2001) Comprehensive Chronological Biography of Li Yujie (李玉階先生年譜長編), Nantou: Tiandijiao chubanshe.
64. Liu Xun (劉迅) (2009) Daoist Modern: Innovation, Lay Practice, and the Community of Inner Alchemy in Republican Shanghai , Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Asia Center.
65. Lo Shih-chieh (羅士傑) (2010) ‘"The order of local things: Popular politics and religion in modern Wenzhou (1840–1940)"’, PhD thesis, Brown University.
66. Li-cheng (呂理政) (1992) Traditional Beliefs and Modern Society (傳統信仰與現代社會), Panchiao: Daoxiang Publishing.
67. Lu Mei-huan (呂玫鍰) (2016) "‘Examining a Mazu pilgrimage in the heritagization process: Changes in ritual practices and the empowerment of a local community’ (遺產化過程中的媽祖進香:儀式變遷與地方賦權的考察)", Minsu quyi Vol 192: 4796.
68. Lu Yunfeng (盧雲峰) (2008) The Transformation of Yiguandao in Taiwan: Adapting to a Changing Religious Economy , Lanham, md: Rowman & Littlefield.
69. Madsen Richard (2007) Democracy’s Dharma: Religious Renaissance and Political Development in Taiwan , Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
70. Mei Hui-yu (梅慧玉) (2014) "‘The practice of incorporation in society: A case study of a spirit medium’s life history’ (社會中的體化實踐:臺南安平乩童濟世成神個案研究)", Minsu quyi Vol 183: 769.
71. Moskowitz Marc L. (2001) The Haunting Fetus: Abortion, Sexuality, and the Spirit World in Taiwan , Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
72. Naquin Susan (2000) Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400–1900 , Berkeley, ca: University of California Press.
73. Nedostup Rebecca A. (2010) Superstitious Regimes: Religion and the Politics of Chinese Modernity , Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press.
74. Oakes Tim, and Sutton Donald S. (eds) (2010) Faiths on Display: Religion, Tourism, and the Chinese State , Lanham, md: Rowman & Littlefield.
75. Ownby David, (2013) ‘"The politics of redemption: Redemptive societies and the Chinese state in modern and contemporary Chinese history"’, in Bao Kang, (康豹, a.k.a. Paul R. Katz) and Liu Shufen (劉淑芬) (eds), Belief, Practice and Cultural Adaptation: Papers from the Religion Section of the Fourth International Conference on Sinology , Taipei: Academia Sinica and Lien-ching Publishing, 683741.
76. Pas Julian (1996) ‘"Religious life in present day Taiwan: A field observation report; 1994–1995’",  Journal of Chinese Religions Vol 24: 131158.
77. Poon Shuk-wah (2011) Negotiating Religion in Modern China: State and Common People in Guangzhou, 1900–1937 , Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
78. Sangren P. Steven (1983) ‘"Female gender in Chinese religious symbols: Kuan Yin, Ma Tsu, and the “Eternal Mother”’", Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society Vol 9(1): 425.
79. Sangren P. Steven (1987) History and Magical Power in a Chinese Community , Stanford, ca: Stanford University Press.
80. Sangren P. Steven (1993) ‘"Power and transcendence in the Ma Tsu pilgrimages of Taiwan’", American Ethnologist Vol 20(3): 564582.
81. Sangren P. Steven, (1996) ‘"Myths, gods, and family relations’", in Shahar Meir, and Weller Robert (eds), Unruly Gods: Divinity and Society in China , Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 150183.
82. Sangren P. Steven, (2003) ‘"Anthropology and identity politics in Taiwan’", in Katz Paul R., and Rubinstein Murray (eds), Religion and the Formation of Taiwanese Identities , New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 253287.
83. Schipper Kristofer M., (1993) ‘"The cult of Pao-sheng ta-ti and its spreading to Taiwan: A case study of fen-hsiang’", in Vermeer E.B. (ed), Development and Decline of Fukien Province in the 17th and 18th Centuries , Leiden: Brill, 397416.
84. Seaman Gary W., (1978) Temple Organization in a Chinese Village , in Tzu-k’uang Lou (婁子匡) (ed), Asian Folklore and Social Life Monographs , Vol. Vol 101, Taipei: The Orient Cultural Service.
85. Shahar Meir (2015) Oedipal God: The Chinese Nezha and His Indian Origins , Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
86. Shih Fang-long, (施芳瓏) (2006) ‘"From regulation and rationalisation, to production: Government policy on religion in Taiwan’", in Fell Dafydd,, Klöter Henning,, and Chang Bi-yu (eds), What has Changed? Taiwan Before and After the Change in Ruling Parties , Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 265283.
87. Shih Fang-long, (2008) ‘"Re-writing religion: Questions of translation, context, and location in the writing of religion in Taiwan’", in Shih Fang-long,, Thompson Stuart,, and Tremlett Paul-François (eds), Re-writing Culture in Taiwan , London: Routledge, 1533.
88. Sung Kuang-yu (宋光宇) (1995) "‘On the formation of divine altars: Preliminary analysis of field materials on divine altar in Gaoxiong’ (神壇的形成:高雄市神壇調查資料的初歩分析)", in Centre for Chinese Studies (漢學研究中心) (ed), Proceedings of the Conference on Temples and Popular Beliefs (寺廟與民間文化研討會論文集), Taipei: Committee for Cultural Construction, 97128.
89. Sung Kuang-yu (1996) Transmitting the Lamp of the Celestial Way: The Way of Pervading Unity and Modern Society (天道傳燈:一貫道與現代社會), Panchiao: Sanyang zongjiangxiao.
90. Sutton Donald S. (2003) Steps of Perfection: Exorcistic Performers and Chinese Religion in Twentieth-Century Taiwan , Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press.
91. Szonyi Michael (2009) ‘"Secularization theories and the study of Chinese religions’", Social Compass Vol 56(3): 312327.
92. Tang Hui-yun (唐蕙韻) (2014) "‘Systematic relation between the supernatural and religious practices: A report on Duke Zhang’s spirit-writing session in Kinmen’ (乩示中的神、靈與儀式、習俗的系統關係:金門中堡威靈殿張公壇乩示紀實)", Minsu quyi Vol 183: 71138.
93. Ting Jen-chieh (丁仁傑) (2013) Revisiting Baoan Village: Sociological Research on Han Chinese Popular Beliefs (重訪保安村:漢人民間信仰的社會學研究), Taipei: Lien-ching Publishing.
94. Tsai Pei-ju (蔡佩如) (2001) Women who Shuttle between Heaven and the People: Gender Characteristics and Bodily Significance of Female Mediums (穿梭天人之際的女人:女童乩的性別特質與身體意涵), Taipei: Tang Shan Publishing.
95. Tsai Yen-zen (蔡彥仁) (ed) (2013) Religious Experience in Contemporary Taiwan and China , Taipei: Chengchi University Press.
96. Wang Chien-chuan (王見川) (1996) Taiwanese Vegetarian Religions and Phoenix Halls (台灣的齋教與鸞堂), Taipei: Xinwenfeng chubanshe.
97. Wang Chien-chuan (2008) Investigations of Chinese Religion, Popular Beliefs, and Prophetic Texts: Selected Writings of Wang Chien-chuan (漢人宗教、民間信仰與預言書的探索:王見川自選集), Luchou: Boyoung Publishing.
98. Wang Chien-chuan (2012) ‘"Cross-Strait religious interaction and charitable activities prior to the kmt’s arrival in Taiwan (1949): With a discussion of the role of Huang Maosheng and the Lanji Bookstore"’ (國民政府來台 [1949] 前兩岸的宗教往來與慈善活動初探:兼談蘭記書局黃茂盛的角色), Mazu and Popular Religion: Research Newsletter (媽祖與民間信仰:研究通訊) Vol 1: 5769.
99. Wang Chien-chuan, (2014) "‘Morality book publishing and popular religion in modern China: A discussion centered on morality book publishers in Shanghai"’, in Clart Philip, and Scott Gregory Adam (eds), Religious Publishing and Print Culture in Modern China, 1800–2012 , Boston and Berlin: De Gruyter, 265294.
100. Wang Chien-chuan, and Chiang Ts’an-t’eng (eds) (1994) Historical Observations and Future Prospects for Taiwanese Vegetarian Religions (台灣齋教的歷史觀察與展望), Taipei: Xinwenfeng chubanshe.
101. Wang Chien-chuan, and Gao Wansang (高萬桑, a.k.a. Vincent Goossaert) (2013) Collection of Historical Materials on the Heavenly Master Zhang during the Modern Era (近代張天師史料彙編), Taipei: Boyoung Publishing.
102. Wang Chih-yu (王志宇) (2008) Temple and Village: Historical and Cultural Observations on Han Chinese Society in Taiwan (寺廟與村落—台灣漢人社會的歷史文化觀察), Taipei: Wenjin Publishing.
103. Weller Robert P. (1994) Resistance, Chaos, and Control in China: Taiping Rebels, Taiwanese Ghosts, and Tiananmen , Seattle, wa: University of Washington Press.
104. Weller Robert P. (2013) ‘"Taiwan and global religious trends’", Research on Taiwan Religion Vol 12(1–2): 730.
105. Weller Robert P., (2014) ‘"Beyond globalization and secularization: Changing religion and philanthropy in Lukang, Taiwan’", in Jansen Thomas,, Klein Thoralf,, and Meyer Christian (eds), Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China: Transnational Religions, Local Agents, and the Study of Religion, 1800-Present , Leiden: Brill, 136155.
106. Wilkerson James (2010) ‘"Marital strategies in elite lineages in Hsinchu County in the Qing Dynasty"’, paper presented at the 2010 Meeting of the Four Rivers Research Project, National Chiao Tung University, 10–11 December.
107. Yang Mayfair Mei-hui (楊美惠) (2004) ‘"Spatial struggles: Postcolonial complex, state disenchantment, and popular re-appropriation of space in rural southeast China’", The Journal of Asian Studies Vol 63(3): 719755.
108. Yang Mayfair Mei-hui (ed) (2008) Chinese Religiosities: Afflictions of Modernity and State Formation , Berkeley, ca: University of California Press.
109. Yang Shih-hsien (楊士賢) (2008) "‘An investigation of the “midnight” mortuary rituals performed by the southern Min “Buddhist religion” (Shijiao): A case study of the Ciming Altar in Fengshan Village, Shoufeng Township, Hualien County’ (臺灣閩南釋教「午夜」喪葬拔渡法事調查:以花蓮縣壽豐鄉豐山村慈明壇爲研究對象)", Minsu quyi Vol 162: 85138.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    International Journal of Taiwan Studies — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation