Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Landscape restoration in southern California forblands: Response of abandoned farmland to invasive annual grass control

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

A large-scale experiment using 1-ha plots was done to control invasive Mediterranean annual grasses, primarily Bromus spp., in farmlands abandoned for 20 years in southern California. Treatments were a grass-specific herbicide, and herbicide plus dethatching. Dethatching was done to improve the contact of herbicide with newly growing grass seedlings, and to remove litter that may potentially affect germination of native annuals. Native annuals had increased richness in response to grass control, but had low cover in all but two of six years when precipitation was adequate. Dethatching did not improve forb response. Two exotic species of Erodium were the greatest beneficiaries of exotic grass control, but the positive response of native forbs in spite of Erodium dominance suggests a competitive hierarchy of less intense interaction between the native forbs and Erodium than between native forbs and exotic grasses. After five years, grasses began to recover from the herbicide treatments, indicating the need for periodic management of exotic grasses to maintain richness and cover of native forbs. Shrubs that occur on adjacent hills did not recolonize during these six years, suggesting that the valley bottoms may have always been forblands rather than shrublands. The study shows that restoration can be used to rediscover the former vegetation of long-disturbed landscapes.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California ; 2: Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California ; 3: Department of Biology, San Diego State University


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Naveh, Z. 1998. Ecological and cultural landscape restoration and the cultural evolution towards a post-industrial symbiosis between human and society and nature. Restor. Ecol. 6: 135–143.
2. D’Antonio, C.M., Vitousek, P.M. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/?re cycle, and global change. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23: 63–87.
3. Stylinski, C.D., Allen, E.B. 1999. Lack of native species recovery following severe exotic disturbance in southern Californian shrublands. J. Appl. Ecol. 36: 544–554.
4. Keeley, J.E., Keeley, S.C. 1984. Post?re recovery of California coastal sage scrub. Am. Midl. Nat. 111: 105–117.
5. Kimball, S., Schiffman, P.M. 2003. Differing effects of cattle grazing on native and alien plants. Conserv. Biol. 17: 1681–1693.
6. Meyer, M.D., Schiffman, P.M. 1999. Fire season and mulch reduction in a California grassland: a comparison of restoration strategies. Madroño 46: 25–37.
7. Gordon, D.R., Rice, K.J. 1993. Competitive effects of grassland annuals on soil-water and blue oak (Quercus douglasii) seedlings. Ecology 74: 68–82.
8. Brooks, M.L., D’Antonio, C.M., Richardson, D.M., Grace, J.B., Keeley, J.E., DiTomaso, J.M., Hobbs, R.J., Pellant, M., Pyke, D. 2004. Effects of invasive alien plants on ?re regimes. BioScience 54: 677–688.
9. Carlsen, T.M., Menke, J.W., Pavlik, B.M. 2000. Reducing competitive suppression of a rare annual forb by restoring native California perennial grasslands. Restor. Ecol. 8: 18–29.
10. Bell, S.S., Fonseca, M.S., Motten, L.B. 1997. Linking restoration and landscape ecology. Restor. Ecol. 5: 318–323.
11. Brooks, M.L. 2000. Competition between alien annual grasses and native annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Am. Midl. Nat. 144: 92–108.
12. Gillespie, I.G., Allen, E.B. 2004. Fire and competition in a southern California grassland: impacts on the rare forb Erodium macrophyllum. J. Appl. Ecol. 41: 643–652.
13. Eliason, S.A., Allen, E.B. 1997. Exotic grass competition in suppressing native shrubland re-establishment. Restor. Ecol. 5: 245–255.
14. DeSimone, S.A., Zedler, P.H. 1999. Shrub seedling recruitment in unburned Californian coastal sage scrub and adjacent grassland. Ecology 80: 2018–2032.
15. DiTomaso, J.M., Kyser, G.B., Hastings, M.S. 1999. Prescribed burning for control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and enhanced native plant diversity. Weed Sci. 47: 233–242.
16. Dremann, C.C. 1988. Prairie relics of California: a guidebook based on Dr. James Barry’s 1971 survey and maps. Redwood City Seed Company, Redwood City, California.
17. Hickman, J.C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual. Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.
18. Minnich, R.A., Dezzani, R.J. 1998. Historical decline of coastal sage scrub in the Riverside-Perris Plain, California. West. Birds 29: 366–391.
19. Sternberg, M., Yu, S.L., Bar (Kutiel), P. 2004. Soil seed banks, habitat heterogeneity, and regeneration strategies in a Mediterranean coastal sand dune. Isr. J. Plant Sci. 52: 213–221.
20. Stromberg, M.R., Grif?n, J.R. 1996. Long-term patterns in coastal California grasslands in relation to cultivation, gophers, and grazing. Ecol. Appl. 6: 1189–1211.
21. Zink, T.A., Allen, M.F., Heindl-Tenhunen, B., Allen, E.B. 1995. The effect of a disturbance corridor on an ecological reserve. Restor. Ecol. 3: 304–310.
22. Weiss, S.B. 1999. Cars, cows, and checkerspot butter?ies: nitrogen deposition and management of nutrient-poor grasslands for a threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1476–1486.
23. Zaady, E., Boeken, B., Ariza, C., Gutterman, Y. 2003. Light, temperature, and substrate effects on the germination of three Bromus species in comparison with their abundance in the ?eld. Isr. J. Plant Sci. 51: 267–273,
24. Pavlik, B.M., Nickrent, D.L., Howald, A.M. 1993. The recovery of an endangered plant. I. Creating a new population of Amsinckia grandi?ora. Conserv. Biol. 7: 510–526.
25. Rejmanek, M., Thomsen, C., Peters, I. 1991. Invasive vascular plants of California. In: Groves, R.H., Di Castri, F., eds. Biogeography of Mediterranean invasions. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 81–102.
26. Corbin, J.D., D’Antonio, C.M., Bainbridge, S. 2004. Tipping the balance in the restoration of native plants: experimental approaches to changing the exotic:native ratio in California grassland. In: Gordon, M.S., Bartol, S.M., eds. Experimental approaches to conservation biology. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 154–179.
27. Schiffman, P.M. 1994. Promotion of exotic weed establishment by endangered giant kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ingens) in a California grassland. Biodivers. Conserv. 3: 524–537.
28. Palmer, M.A., Ambrose, R.F., Poff, N.L. 1997. Ecological theory and community restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol. 5: 291–300.
29. Naveh, Z. 2005. Epilogue: Toward a transdisciplinary science of ecological and cultural landscape restoration. Restor. Ecol. 13: 228–234.
30. Nelson, L.L., Allen, E.B. 1993. Restoration of Stipa pulchra grasslands: effects of mycorrhizae and competition from Avena barbata. Restor. Ecol. 1: 40–50.
31. Pysek, P., Prach, K., Rejmanek, M., Wade, M. 1995. Plant invasions: general aspects and special problems. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam.
32. Padgett, P.E., Kee, S.N., Allen, E.B. 2000. The effects of irrigation on revegetation of semiarid coastal sage scrub in southern California. Environ. Manage. 26: 427–435.
33. Cione, N.K., Padgett, P.E., Allen, E.B. 2002. Restoration of a native shrubland impacted by exotic grasses, frequent ?re, and nitrogen deposition in southern California. Restor. Ecol. 10: 376–384.
34. Schiffman, P.M. 2000. Mammal burrowing, erratic rainfall, and the annual lifestyle in the California prairie: is it time for a paradigm shift? In: Keeley, J., Baer-Keeley, M., Fotheringham. C.J., eds. 2nd Interface between ecology and land development in California. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 00–62, pp. 153–160.
35. Shipley, B., Keddy, P.A. 1994. Evaluating the evidence for competitive hierarchies in plant communities. Oikos 69: 340–345.
36. Allen, E.B. 2004. Restoration of Artemisia shrublands invaded by exotic annual Bromus: a comparison between southern California and the intermountain region. In: Hild, A.L., Shaw, N.L., Meyer, S.E., Schupp, E.W., Booth, T., eds. Seed and soil dynamics in shrubland ecosystems. Proceedings, August 12–16, 2002. U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah, Proceedings RMRS-P-31, pp. 9–17.
37. Allen, E.B., Eliason, S.A., Marquez, V.J., Schultz, G.P., Storms, N.K., Stylinski, C.D., Zink, T.A., Allen, M.F. 2000. What are the limits of coastal sage scrub restoration in southern California? In: Keeley, J.E., Keeley, M.B., Fotheringham, C.J., eds. 2nd Interface between ecology and land development in California. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-62, pp. 253–262.
38. Bar (Kutiel), P., Cohen, O., Shoshany, M. 2004. Invasion rate of the alien species Acacia saligna within coastal sand dune habitats in Israel. Isr. J. Plant Sci. 52: 115–124.
39. Hamilton, J.G. 1997. Changing perceptions of pre-European grasslands in California. Madroño 44: 311–333.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Israel Journal of Plant Sciences — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation