Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Integrating landscape ecology in the conservation of Mediterranean ecosystems: The Israeli experience

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

There is at present enough ecological understanding of Mediterranean ecosystems to provide legitimacy for active management and intervention in these environments. One of the principal threats to biodiversity in Mediterranean environments is posed by the successional processes that turn the landscape into a dense, close stand of woody vegetation, prone to burning. Active management aimed to control the closing up process is required; it should be considered at several levels—species, populations, communities, and ecosystems—and should be applied according to well-defined management/conservation goals. Biodiversity, especially in the animal populations and the herbaceous community, is an expression of the landscape structure, which, in turn, is modulated principally by the woody vegetation. Therefore, a management scheme based on multiscale functional patchiness is required. Scientists, especially landscape ecologists, should provide the required information on the relations between the woody formation and biodiversity and should participate in the management decision-making process.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Agronomy and Natural Resources, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Sinclair, A.R.E. 1998. Natural regulation of ecosystems in protected areas as ecological baselines. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 26: 399–409.
2. Wiens, J.A. 1997. The emerging role of patchiness in conservation biology. In: Pickett, S.T.A., Ostfeld, R.S., Shachak, M., Likens, G.E., eds. The ecological basis of conservation. ITP, New York.
3. Adler, P.B., Raff, D.A., Lauenroth, W.K. 2001. The effect grazing on the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation. Oecolo gia 128: 465 479.
4. Mooney, H.A., Dune, E.L. 1970b. Photosynthetic systems of Mediterranean climate shrubs and trees of California and Chile. Am. Nat. 104: 447–453.
5. Attenborough, D. 1987. The rst Eden: the Mediterranean world and man. London, Collins/BBC Books.
6. Balent, G., Alard, D., Blanfort, V., Gibon, A. 1998. Activites de paturage, paysages et biodiversite. Ann. Zootech. 47: 419-429.
7. Berggren, A., Birath, B., Kindvall, O. 2001. Effect of and habitat edges on dispersal behavior, movement rates, and movement angles in Roesel’s Bush-Cricket (Metrioptera roeseli). Conserv. Biol. 16: 1562–1569.
8. Naveh, Z. 1967. Mediterranean ecosystems and vegetation types in California and Israel. Ecology 48: 445–458.
9. Naveh, Z. 1974b. Effects of ?re in the Mediterranean region. In: Kozlowski, T.T., Ahlgren, C.E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. Academic Press, New York, pp. 401–434.
10. Ne’eman, G. 2003. To be or not to be—the effect of nature management on ?owering of Paeonia mascula (L.) Miller in Israel. Biol. Conserv. 109: 103–109.
11. Bersier, L.F., Meyer, D.R. 1994. Bird assemblages in mosaic forests—the relative importance of vegetation structure and floristic composition along the successional gradient. Acta Oecol. 15: 561–576.
12. van Wieren, S.E. 1995. The potential role of large herbivores in nature conservation and extensive land use in Europe. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 56(suppl.): 11–23.
13. West, N.E. 1993. Biodiversity of rangelands. J. Range Manage. 46:2–13.
14. Le Houérou, H.N. 1981. Impact of man and his animals on Mediterranean vegetation. In: di Castri, F., Goodall, D.W., Specht, R.L., eds. Mediterramean-type shrublands. Elsevier Scienti?c, New York, pp. 523–537.
15. Lev Yadun, S., Gopher, A., Abbo, S. 2000. The cradle of agriculture. Science 288: 1602–1603.
16. Mangel, M., + 41 others. 1996. Principles for the conservation of wild living resources. Ecol. Appl. 6: 338–362.
17. Hobbs, R.J., Norton, D.A. 1966. Towards a conceptual framework for restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol. 4:93–110.
18. Lavi, A., Perevolotsky, A., Kigel, H., Noy-Meir, I. 2004. The spread of Pinus halepensis from planted forests to natural vegetation. Forest 5–6: 12–18 (in Hebrew, English abstr.).
19. Law, B.S., Dickman, C.R. 1998. The use of habitat mosaics by terrestrial vertebrate fauna: implications for conservation and management. Biodivers. Conserv. 7: 323–333.
20. Falk, D.A. 1992. From conservation biology to conservation practice: strategies for protecting plant diversity. In: Fiedler, P.L., Jein, K.S., eds. Conservation biology: the theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation and management. Chapman and Hall, New York.
21. Diamond, J. 1997. Guns, germs, and steel: the fates of human societies. Norton, New York.
22. di Castri, F., Mooney, H. 1973. Mediterranean type ecosystems—origin and structure. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
23. Gabay, E. 2000. Mt. Meiron Nature Reserve—A management program. Jerusalem, Israel Nature and Parks Authority (in Hebrew).
24. Gendler, Y. 1997. Mt. Tayassim Nature Reserve—A management program. Jerusalem, Israel Nature and Parks Authority (in Hebrew).
25. Green, B.H. 1986. Controlling ecosystems for amenity. In: Bradshaw, A.D., Goode, D.A., Thorp, E.H.P., eds. Ecology and design in landscape. Blackwell, Oxford.
26. Mitchell, F.J.G., Kirby, K.J. 1990. The impact of large herbivores on the conservation of semi-natural woods in the British uplands. Forestry 63: 333–353.
27. Mooney, H.A., Dune, E.L. 1970a. Convergence evolution of Mediterranean-climate evergreen sclerophyll shrubs. Evolution 24: 292–303.
28. Callicott, J.B., Crowder, L.B., Mumford, K. 1999. Current normative concepts in conservation. Conserv. Biol. 13: 22–35.
29. Chen, J.Q., Franklin, J.F., Lowe, J.S. 1996. Comparison of abiotic and structurally de?ned patch patterns in a hypothetical forest landscape. Conserv. Biol. 10: 854–862.
30. Brown, J.R., MacLeod, N.D. 1996. Integrating ecology into natural resources management policy. Environ. Manage. 20: 289–296.
31. Bullock, J.M., Pakeman, R.J. 1977. Grazing of lowland heath in England: management methods and their effects on heathland vegetation. Biol. Conserv. 79: 1–13.
32. Schwartz-Tzachor, R., Perevolotsky, A., Yonatan, R., Ne’eman, G. 2003. The effect of grazing on reproduction and population dynamics of the Mediterranean geophyte Anemone coronaria. Forest 4: 54–59 (in Hebrew, English abstr.).
33. Salafsky, N., Margoluis, R., Redford, K.H., Robinson, J.G. 2002. Improving the practice of conservation: a conceptual framework and research agenda for conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 16: 1469–1479.
34. Puerto, A., Rico, M., Matias, M.D., Garcia, J.A. 1990. Variation in structure and diversity in Mediterranean grasslands related to trophic status and grazing intensity. J. Veg. Sci. 1: 445–452.
35. Naveh, Z. 1974a. The ecological management of non-arable Mediterranean uplands. J. Environ. Manage. 2: 351–471.
36. Peterken, G.F. 1991. Ecological issues in the management of woodland nature reserves in Great Britain. In: Spellerberg, I.F., Goldsmith, F.B., Morris, M.G., eds. The scienti?c management of temperate communities for conservation. Blackwell, Oxford.
37. Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenasso, M.L. 1995. Landscape ecology: spatial heterogeneity in ecological systems. Science 269: 331–334.
38. Perevolotsky, A. 2002. Conservation and management of Pinus halepensis in Israel: an ecological basis for a national program. MEDPINE 2, Chania, Crete, Greece, 8–13 Sept. 2002.
39. Perevolotsky, A. 2004. Nature conservation in Mediterranean environments: the Israeli experience. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems (MEDECOS), April 25–May 1, 2004, Rhodes, Greece. Millpress, Rotterdam.
40. Perevolotsky, A., Seligman, N.G. 1998. Role of grazing in Mediterranean rangeland ecosystems. BioScience 48: 1007–1017.
41. Perevolotsky, A. 1994. Nature conservation and landscape management. Ecology and Environment 1:161–170 (in Hebrew, English summary).
42. Pickett, S.T.A., Ostfeld, R.S., Shachak, M., Likens, G.E., eds. 1997. The ecological basis of conservation. ITP, New York.
43. Odum, E.P. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164: 262–270.
44. Olff, H., Vera, F.W.M., Bokdam, J., Bakker, E.S., Gleichman, J.M., de Maeyer, K., Smit, R. 1999. Shifting mosaics in grazed woodlands driven by the alternation of plant facilitation and competition. Plant Biol. 1: 127–137.
45. Brawn, J.R.D., Robinson, S.K., Thompson, F.R. 2001. The role of disturbance in the ecology and conservation of birds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 32: 251–276.
46. Brockett, B.H., Biggs, H.C., van Wilgen, B.W. 2001. A patch mosaic burning system for conservation areas in southern African savannas. Int. J. Wildland Fire 10: 169–183.
47. Naveh, Z., Dan, J. 1973. The human degradation of Mediterranean landscape in Israel. In: di Castri, F., Mooney, H.A., eds. Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York.
48. Naveh, Z., Whittaker, R.H. 1975. Structural and ?oristic diversity of shrublands and woodlands in northern Israel and other Mediterranean areas. Vegetatio 43: 171–190.
49. Naveh, Z. 1991. Some remarks on recent developments in landscape ecology as a transdisciplinary ecological and geographical science. Landsc. Ecol. 5: 65–73.
50. Naveh, Z. 1994. The role of ?re and its management in the conservation of Mediterranean ecosystems and landscapes. In: Moreno, J.M., Oechel, W.C., eds. The role of ?re in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 163–185.
51. Naveh, Z. 1998. Culture and landscape conservation: a landscape- ecological perspective. In: Gopal, B., Rathak, P.S., Saxena, K.G., eds. Ecology today: an anthology of contemporary ecological research. New Delhi, International Scienti?c Publications, pp. 19–48.
52. Naveh, Z. 1971. Conservation of ecological diversity of Mediterranean ecosystems through ecological management. In: Duffey, E., Watt, A.S., eds. The scienti?c management of animal and plant communities for conservation. Blackwell, London.
53. Shmida, A. 1981. Mediterranean vegetation in California and Israel: similarities and differences. Isr. J. Bot. 30: 105–123.
54. Alard, D., Poudevigne, I., Dutoit, T., Decaens, T. 1998. namique de la biodiversite dans un espace en mutation. Le cas de pelouses calcicoles de la basse vallee de Seine. Oecol. 19: 275 284.
55. de Jong, M., Kwa, C. 2000. Ecological theories and Dutch nature conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 9: 1171–1186.
56. Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., de Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.
57. Ostfeld, R.S., Pickett, S.T.A., Shachak, M., Likens, G.E. 1997. De?ning the scienti?c issues. In: Pickett, S.T.A., Ostfeld, R.S., Shachak, M., Likens, G.E., eds. The ecological basis of conservation. Kluwer Academic (Springer), New York.
58. Telfer, M.G., Eversham, B.C. 1996. Ecology and conservation of heathland Carabidae in eastern England. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 33: 133–138.
59. Hunter, M.L. 2000. Re?ning normative concepts in conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14: 573–574.
60. Lamont, B.B. 1995. Testing the effect of ecosystem composition and structure on its functioning. Oikos 74: 283–295.
61. Hunter, M.L. 1986. A triad approach to land-use allocation. In: Bradshaw, A.D., Goode, D.A., Thorp, E.H.P., eds. Ecology and design in landscape. Blackwell, Oxford.
62. Jarman, R.A. 1995. Ecological restoration: the end of status quoism in the National Trust? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 56(Suppl.): 213–215.
63. Meffe, G.K., Caroll, C.R. 1997. Principles of conservation biology. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.
64. Debussche, M., Debussche, J., Lepart, J. 2001. Changes in the vegetation of Quercus pubescens woodland after cessation of coppicing and grazing. J. Veg. Sci. 12: 81–92.
65. Cowling, R.M., Campbell, B.M. 1980. Convergence in vegetation structure in the Mediterranean communities of California, Chile and South Africa. Vegetatio 43: 191–197.
66. Cook, J.E. 1996. Implications of modern successional theory for habitat typing: a review. For. Sci. 42: 67–75.
67. Cody, M.L. 1986. Diversity, rarity, and conservation in Mediterranean- climate regions. In: Soule, M.E., ed. Conservation biology. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.
68. Cody, M.L., Mooney, H.A. 1978. Convergence and dissimilarities of Mediterranean ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 9: 265–321.
69. Cowling, R.M., Rundel, P.W., Lamont, B.B., Arroyo, M.K., Arianoutsou, M. 1996. Plant diversity in Mediterraneanclimate regions. Tree 11: 362–366.
70. Debussche, M., Escarré, J., Lepart, J., Houssard, C., Lavorel, S. 1996. Changes in Mediterranean plant succession: old ?elds revisited. J. Veg. Sci. 7: 519–526.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Israel Journal of Plant Sciences — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation