Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The significance of dense sclerophyllous oak forests in the landscapes of northern Israel and their ecological values: An unconventional viewpoint

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

The significance of the dense sclerophyllous oak forests (DSOFs) in the vegetal landscape of the southeastern Mediterranean is addressed through a case study of the Carmel region (Israel), where most traditional land uses have declined in the past 50 years. A GIS-assisted analysis of the vegetation cover shows that the proportion of DSOFs in the vegetal landscape of the Carmel area is very restricted (8%) compared with their present significance in vegetal landscapes of the northwestern Mediterranean. The potential development of DSOFs in future decades in the Levant is considered. The drought constraint, the persistence of some traditional land-use practices, and the increasing population density suggest that the proportion of DSOFs in the vegetal landscape will not increase significantly in the region considered.The ecological values of DSOFs are discussed. Although these formations are generally considered to be of very low interest due to their low plant species richness, they nevertheless do present numerous ecological values: They are less fire-prone than other woody vegetation types. They protect the soil top layers from erosion. Their invasibility is very low. Finally, when undisturbed, they may represent a relatively advanced stage of forest dynamics and therefore, theoretically, enable the emergence of mature forests which may harbor forest-dwelling species. It is suggested that the ecological value of DSOFs should be determined after all these aspects are considered, and not based solely on the plant richness criterion.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Geography, the Liphschitz College for Academic Studies ; 2: Department of Agronomy and Natural Resources, Institute of Field Crops, Agriculture Research Organization, The Volcani Center ; 3: Centre Biogéographie-Ecologie, Institut Européen de Développement Durable


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Hebrard, J.P. 2001. La banque édaphique de diaspores de bryophytes de l’écosysteme du chêne vert au bois d’Astros (commune de Vidauban, Var, France). Nova Hedwigia 73: 323–337.
2. Grove, A.T., Rackham, O. 1993. Threatened landscapes in the Mediterranean: examples from Crete. Landscape and Urban Planning 24: 279–292.
3. Hajabassi, M.A., Jalalian, A., Karimzadeh, H.R. 1997. De- forestation effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Lordegan, Iran. Plant and Soil 190: 301–308.
4. Kimmins, J.P. 1997. Forest ecology. Second edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J. p. 596.
5. Sancho-Comins, J., Bosque-Sendra, J., Moreno-Sanz, F. 1993. Crisis and permanence of the traditional Mediterranean landscape in the central region of Spain. Landscape and Urban Planning 23: 155–166.
6. Kaplan, D. 1993. Biological diversity of Mediterranean landscapes in Israel through the deployment of nature reserves. Landscape and Urban Planning 24: 39–42.
7. Inbar, M., Wittenberg, L., Tamir, M. 1998. Runoff and erosion processes after a forest ?re in Mount Carmel, a Mediterranean area. Geomorphology 24: 17–33.
8. Vallauri, D., André, J., Blondel, J. 2002. Deadwood, a vital attribute of old-growth forest biodiversity, a gap in managed forests. Scienti?c report, World Wildlife Fund, Paris, p. 34 (in French, summary in English).
9. Vos, W. 1993. Recent landscape transformation in the Tuscan Apennines caused by changing land use. Landscape and Urban Planning 24: 63–68.
10. Shea, K., Chesson, P. 2002. Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17(4): 170–176.
11. Shmida, A. 1981. Mediterranean vegetation in California and Israel: similarities and differences. Israel Journal of Botany 30: 105–123.
12. Schiller, G., Ne’eman, G., Korol, L. 1997. Post-?re vegetation dynamics in a native Pinus halepensis Mill. Forest on Mt. Carmel. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 45: 297–308.
13. Sharon, R., Degani, G., Warburg, M. 2001. Comparing the soil macro-fauna in two oak-wood forests: does community structure differ under similar ambient conditions? Pedobiologia 45: 355–366.
14. Quézel, P., Médail, F. 2003. Ecologie et Biogéographie des forêts du bassin méditerranéen. Elsevier, Paris.
15. Rundel, P.W. 1998. Landscape disturbance in Mediterraneantype ecosystems: An overview. In: Rundel, P.W., Montenegro, G., Jakstic, F.M., eds. Landscape disturbance and biodiversity in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Ecological studies 136, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 3–22.
16. Sadaka, N., Ponge, J.F. 2003. Soil animal communities in Holm oak forests: in?uence of horizon, altitude and year. European Journal of Soil Biology 39: 197–207.
17. Ales, R.F., Martin, A., Ortega, F., Ales, E.E. 1992. Recent changes in landscape structure and function in a mediter ranean region of SW Spain (1950 1984). Landscape Ecol ogy 7(1): 3 18.
18. Alexandrian, D., Esnault, F., Calabri, G. 1999. Forest res the Mediterranean area. Unasylva 50: 35 41.
19. Barbero, M., Quezel, P. 1988. Lfevolution du couvert forestier dans la region Provence Alpes Cote dfAzur en relation avec la deprise rurale. Actes du V
20. e colloque de lfA.F.G.P.: 199 212.
21. Barbero, M., Loisel, R., Quezel, P. 1992. Biogeography, ecology and history of Mediterranean Quercus ilex ecosystems. Vegetatio 99–100: 19–34.
22. Barbero, M., Bonin, G., Quezel, P. and disturbances of forest ecosystems caused by human activities in the western part of the mediterranean basin Vegetatio 87: 151 173.
23. Alpert, P., Bone, E., Holzapfel, C. 2000. Invasiveness, ibility and the role of environmental stress in the spread non-native plants. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolu tion and Systematics 3(1): 52 66.
24. Atauri, J.A., de Lucio, J.V. 2001. The role of landscape ture in species richness distribution of birds, amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans in Mediterranean landscapes. Landscape Ecology 16: 147 159.
25. Barbero, M., Quezel, P. 1990. La deprise rurale et ses effets les super ciesforestieresdanslaregionProvence-Alpes-Cote dfAzur. Bulletin de la Societe Linneenne de Provence 41: 77 88.
26. Farina, A. 1998. Bird diversity in a changing landscape (Tuscany, Italy). In: Rundel, P.W., Montenegro, G., Jakstic, F.M., eds. Landscape disturbance and biodiversity in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Ecological studies 136, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 349–367.
27. Etienne, M., Aronson, J., Le Floc’h, E. 1998. Abandoned lands and land use con?icts in Southern France. In: Rundel, P.W., Montenegro, G., Jakstic, F.M., eds. Landscape disturbance and biodiversity in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Ecological studies 136, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 127–140.
28. Farina, A. 1991. Recent changes of the mosaic pattern in a montane landscape (North Italy) and consequences on vertebrate fauna. Options Mediterranéennes—Séries séminaires 15: 121–134.
29. Emberger, L. 1955. Une classi?cation biogéographique des climats. Recherches et Travaux du Laboratoire de Botanique de la Faculté des Sciences de Montpellier 7: 3–43.
30. Emberger, L. 1971a. Considération complémentaires au sujet des recherches bioclimatologiques et phytogéographiquesécologiques. In: Emberger, L., ed. Travaux de Botanique et d’Ecologie. Masson, Paris, pp. 291–301.
31. Debussche, M., Debussche, G., Lepart, J. 2001. Changes in the vegetation of Quercus pubescens woodland after cessation of coppicing and grazing. Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 81–92.
32. Dufour, J.M. 1999. Potentialités et dynamiques végétales en Méditerranée orientale: La région du Carmel, Israël. Thèse de Doctorat, Université de Paris, Sorbonne, Paris IV; p. 551.
33. Dufour-Dror, J.M., Ertas, A. 2004. Bioclimatic perspectives in the distribution of Quercus ithaburensis Decne. Subspecies in Turkey and in the Levant. Journal of Biogeography 31: 461–474.
34. Blondel, J., Aronson, J. 1999. Biology and Wildlife of the Mediterranean Region. Oxford University Press, p. 328.
35. Bran, D., Lobreaux, O., Maistre, M., Perret, P., Romane, F. 1990. Germination of Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens in a Quercus ilex coppice: Long-term consequences. Vegetatio 87: 45–50.
36. Daget, P., Ahdali, L., David, P. 1988. Mediterranean bioclimate and its variation in the palaearctic region. In: Specht, R.L., ed. Mediterranean-type ecosystems, a data source book. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 139–148.
37. Debussche, M., Lepart, J., Dervieux, A. 1999. Mediterranean landscape changes: evidence from old postcards. Global Ecology and Biogeography 8: 3–15.
38. Dufour-Dror, J.M. 2002. A quantitative classi?cation of Mediterranean mosaic-like landscapes. Journal of Mediterranean Ecology 3(2/3): 3–12.
39. Emberger, L. 1971b. Travaux de botanique et d’ecologie. Masson, Paris.
40. Ne'eman, G., Lahav, H., Izhaki, I. 1992. Spatial pattern of seedlings 1 year after ?re in a Mediterranean pine forest. Œcologia 91: 365–370.
41. Naveh, Z., Kutiel, P. 1990. Changes in the mediterranean vegetation of Israel in response to human habitation and land use. In: Woodwell, G.M., ed. Earth in transition: Patterns and processes of biotic impoverishment, Cambridge University Press, pp. 259–300.
42. Naveh, Z., Whittaker, R.H. 1979. Structural and ?oristic diversity of shrublands and woodlands in northern Israel and other Mediterranean areas. Vegetatio 41(3): 171–190.
43. Naveh, Z. 1993. Red books for threatened Mediterranean landscapes as an innovative tool for holistic landscape conservation. Introduction to the western Crete Red Book case study. Landscape and Urban Planning 24: 241–247.
44. Naveh, Z. 1998. From biodiversity to ecodiversity—Holistic conservation of the biological and cultural diversity of Mediterranean landscapes. In: Rundel, P.W., Montenegro, G., Jakstic, F.M., eds. Landscape disturbance and biodiversity in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, Ecological studies 136, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp.127–140.
45. Naveh, Z. 1999. The role of ?re as an evolutionary and ecological factor on the landscape and vegetation of Mt. Carmel. Journal of Mediterranian Ecology 1: 11–25.
46. Le Houérou, H.N. 1987. Vegetation wild?res in the mediterranean basin: evolution and trends. Ecologia Medirerranea 13(4): 13–24.
47. Mandelik, Y., Dayan, T., Feitelson, E. 2005 Issues and dilemmas in ecological scoping: scienti?c, procedural and economic perspectives. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 23(1): 55–63.
48. Moreno, J.M. 1998. Large forest ?res. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
49. Moreno, J.M., Vazquez, A., Velez, R. 1998. Recent history of forest ?res in Spain. In: Moreno, J.M., ed. Large forest ?res. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 159–185.
50. Naveh, Z., Lieberman, A. 1994. Landscape ecology theory and application. 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag, New York.
51. Perevolotsky, A., Seligman, N. 1998. Role of grazing in mediterranean rangeland ecosystems. Bioscience 48(12): 1007–1017.
52. Perevolotsky, A., Dolev, A. 2002. Endangered species in Israel. Red list of threatened animals: vertebrates. The Nature and Parks Authority and the Society for the Preservation of Nature, Jerusalem (in Hebrew).
53. Papanastasis, V.P., Kazakli, A. 1998. Land use changes and con?icts in the Mediterranean-type ecosystems of Western Crete. In: Rundel, P.W., Montenegro, G., Jakstic, F.M., eds. Landscape disturbance and biodiversity in Mediterraneantype ecosystems. Ecological studies 136, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp.142–154.
54. Köppen, W. 1931. Grundriss der Klimakunde. Gruyter & Co., Berlin.
55. Gallego-Fernandez, J.B., Garcia-Mora, M.R., Garcia-Novo, F. 2004. Vegetation dynamics of Mediterranean shrublands in former cultural landscape at Grazalema Mountains, South Spain. Plant Ecology 172(1): 83–94.
56. Preiss, E., Martin, J.L., Debussche, M. 1997. Rural depopulation and recent landscape changes in a Mediterranean region: Consequences to the breeding avifauna. Journal of Landscape Ecology 12(1): 51–61.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Israel Journal of Plant Sciences — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation