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Multicolor fluorescence images and fluorescence ratio images of green apples at harvest and during storage

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image of Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

With a multicolor fluorescence imaging system the fluorescence images of freshly harvested light-green apples were measured in the four major fluorescence bands of green plant tissue, i.e., the fluorescence bands F440 (blue), F520 (green), F690 (red), and F740 (far-red). By a pixel-to-pixel division of the fluorescence images we also determined the fluorescence ratio images blue/green (F440/F520), blue/red (F440/F690), and blue/far-red (F440/F740), as well as the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio red/far-red (F690/F740). In addition, the changes of fluorescence yield in the four fluorescence bands and of the fluorescence ratios were studied during the storage and ripening of Braeburn apples during 2,3, and 6 months at standard conditions of 4 °C and 90% relative humidity. The blue and green fluorescence bands increased during storage and ripening, whereas the far-red band continuously declined with decreasing chlorophyll content. In contrast, the intensity of the red chlorophyll fluorescence band F690 slightly increased up to 3 months of storage and then declined by 26% after 6 months of storage. This differential behavior of the four fluorescence bands is reflected in the fluorescence ratio images. The results demonstrate that the postharvest changes of apples, their partial chlorophyll loss, and ripening can be followed and assessed well by fluorescence imaging and via the four fluorescence ratio images. The great advantage of multicolor fluorescence imaging of the different fluorescence ratios being more reliable and less sensitive to errors as compared to imaging only one single fluorescence band, e.g., the red chlorophyll fluorescence F690, is discussed.

Affiliations: 1: Botanical Institute (Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Plants), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, University Division, Kaiserstr


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