Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Change in Biochemical Composition During Development of Snow Crab, Chionoecetes Opilio, Embryos

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of Crustacean Biology

Abstract Adult oveigerous female snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, were obtained approximately bimonthly from the eastern Bering Sea for embryonic sampling and biometric information. Biochemical analysis of embryo samples included determination of moisture, ash, total lipid, protein content, fatty acid profile, and lipid profile. Moisture increased as the embryos matured. Protein content remained unchanged, ash content increased, and lipid content decreased on a dry weight basis coincident with embryonic development indicating that lipids were the main energy source of developing embryos. The utilization of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acid categories during development was similar but individual fatty acids within each category varied considerably. Over 75% of the C14:0, C18:4(n-3), and C20:1(n-11) fatty acids were consumed during the embryonic development from nauplius to pre-hatch while C22:5(n-3), C20:5(n-3), and C18:1(n-9)cis fatty acids were utilized at 49%, 57%, and 48% respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, C22:6(n-3), was among the least utilized fatty acid at 36%. Forward stepwise general discriminant analysis of fatty acid profiles indicated that determination of fatty acid profiles could be used to distinguish between embryos at the nauplius stage and the prehatching stage of development but not among embryos at intermediate stages. Triacylglycerides provided the energy source during development. This research highlights the potential nutrient requirements critical to early life-history development of Bering Sea snow crabs.

Affiliations: 1: a (KR, correspondence:, National Marine Fisheries Service, P.O. Box 130, Manchester, Washington 98353 ; 2: b (LR) National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Kodiak Fishery Research Laboratory, 301 Research Court, Kodiak, Alaska 99615 ( ; 3: c (AO) Fishery Industrial Technology Center, University of Alaska, 118 Trident Way, Kodiak, Alaska 99615 (


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. ADFG 2000 "Annual Management Report for the Shellfish Fisheries of the Westward Region." Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Regional Information Report No. 4K00-55, Kodiak
2. Alasalvar C. , Odabasi A. Z. , Demir N. , Balaban M. O. , Shahidi F. , Cadwallader K. R. 2004 "Volatiles and flavor of five Turkish hazelnut varieties as evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis, electronic nose, and dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry." Journal of Food Science Vol 69 99 106
3. Anger K. , Moreira G. S. 2004 "Biomass and elemental composition of eggs and larvae of a mangrove crab, Sesarma rectum Randall (Decapoda: Sesarmidae) and comparison to a related species with abbreviated larval development." Scientia Marina (Barcelona) Vol 68 117 126
4. Babu D. E. 1987 "Observations on the embryonic development and energy source in the crab Xantho bidentatus." Marine Biology Vol 95 123 127
5. Biesiot P. M. , Perry H. M. 1995 "Biochemical composition of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon quinquedens (Geryonidae): Organic reserves of developing embryos and adults." Marine Biology Vol 124 407 416
6. Cavalli R. O. , Lavens P. , Sorgeloos P. 1999 "Performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock fed diets with different fatty acid composition." Aquaculture Vol 179 387 402
7. Clarke A. , Brown J. H. , Holmes L. J. 1990 "The biochemical composition of eggs from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in relation to embryonic development." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 96B 505 511
8. Conan G. Y. , Commeau M. , Robichaud G. 1992 "Life history and fishery management of majid crabs: The case study of the Bonne Bay (Newfoundland) Chionoecetes opilio population." Council Meeting of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Santander, Spain, 1 October 1987/K:21, 24 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark
9. Cunniff P. 1995 "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists, 16 edition,." Gaithersburg, Maryland
10. Ennis G. P. , Hooper R. G. , Taylor D. M. 1990 "Changes in the consumption of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) participating in the annual breeding migration in Bonne Bay, Newfoundland." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol 47 2242 2249
11. Folch J. , Lees M. , Sloane-Stanley G. H. 1957 "A simple method for the isolation and purification of lipids from animal tissues." Journal of Biological Chemistry Vol 226 497 509
12. Garcia-Guerrero M. , Racotta I. S. , Villarreal H. 2003 "Variation in lipid, protein, and carbohydrate content during the embryonic development of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda:Parastacidae)." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 23 1 6
13. Gardner C. 2001 "Composition of eggs in relation to embryonic development and female size in giant crabs Pseudocarcinus gigas (Lamarck)." Marine and Freshwater Research Vol 52 333 338
14. Gonzlez-Flix M. L. , Gatlin D. M. III , Lawrence A. L. , Perez-Velazquez M. 2003 "Nutritional evaluation of fatty acids for the open thelycum shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: II. Effect of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated and highly unsaturated fatty acids on juvenile shrimp growth, survival, and fatty acid composition." Aquaculture Nutrition Vol 9 115 122
15. Harrison K. E. 1990 "The role of nutrition in maturation, reproduction and embryonic development of decapod crustaceans: A review." Journal of Shellfish Research Vol 9 1 28
16. Jadamec L. S. , Donaldson W. E. , Cullenberg P. 1999 "Biological field techniques for Chionoecetes crabs." Alaska Sea Grant College Program; AK-SG-99-02. 80 p
17. Jaeckle W. B. 1995 "Variation in the size, energy content, and biochemical composition of invertebrate eggs, pp. 49-77. Correlates to the mode of larval development." In, L. McEdward (ed.), Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL
18. Ji W. 1998 "Effects of highly unsaturated fatty acids in broodstock diets on spawning and egg quality of Penaeus chinensis." Journal of Fisheries of China Vol 22 240 246
19. Kanno Y. 1987 "Reproductive ecology of Tanner crab in the South Western Okhotsk Sea." Nippon Suisan Gakkashi Vol 53 733 728 (Canadian Translation Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 5628)
20. Kattner G. , Graevea M. , Calcagno J. A. , Lovrich G. A. , Thatjea S. , Anger K. 2003 "Lipid, fatty acid and protein utilization during lecithotrophic larval development of Lithodes santolla (Molina) and Paralomis granulosa (Jacquinot)." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Vol 292 61 74
21. Kon T. 1979 "Ecological studies on larvae of the crabs belonging to the genus Chionoecetes - I: The influence of starvation on the survival and growth of the Zuwai crab." Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries Vol 45 7 9
22. Lovrich G. A. , Sainte-Marie B. , Smith B. D. 1995 "Depth distribution and seasonal movements of Chionoecetes opilio (Brachyura: Majidae) in Baie Sainte-Marguerite, Gulf of Saint Lawrence." Canadian Journal of Zoology Vol 73 1712 1726
23. Maxwell R. J. , Marmer W. N. 1983 "Fatty acid analysis: phospholipid rich samples." Lipids Vol 18 453 459
24. Morais S. , Narciso L. , Calado R. , Nunes M. L. , Rosa R. 2002 "Lipid dynamics during the embryonic development of Plesionika martia martia (Decapoda; Pandalidae), Palaemon serratus and P. elegans (Decapoda; Palaemonidae): relation to metabolic consumption." Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol 242 195 204
25. Moriyasu M. , Lanteigne C. 1998 "Embryo development and reproductive cycle in the snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio (Crustacea: Majidae), in the southern Gulf of St." Lawrence, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology Vol 76 2040 2048
26. Moriyasu M. , Conan G. Y. , Mallet P. , Chiasson Y. , Lacroix H. 1987 "Growth at molt, molting season and mating of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in relation to functional and morphometric maturity. Council Meeting of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea." C.M. 1987/K:21, 14 pp
27. Narciso L. , Morais S. 2001 "Fatty acid profile of Palaemon serratus (palaemonidae) eggs and larvae during embryonic and larval development using different live diets." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 21 566 574
28. Nelson M. M. , Crear B. J. , Nichols P. D. , Ritz D. A. 2004 "Growth and lipid composition of phyllosomata of the southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, fed enriched Artemia." Aquaculture Nutrition Vol 10 237 246
29. Oliveira A. C M. , Bechtel P. 2005 "Lipid composition of Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaska walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) byproducts." Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology Vol 14 73 91
30. Oliveira A. C M. , Crapo C. , Himelbloom B. , Vorholt C. , Hoffert J. 2005 "Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electronic nose analysis of volatile compounds in canned Alaska pink salmon having various grades of watermarking." Journal of Food Science Vol 70 419 426
31. Petersen S. , Anger K. 1997 "Chemical and physiological changes during the embryonic development of the spider crab, Hyas araneus L. (Decapoda: Majidae)." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 117B 299 306
32. Robichaud D. A. , Bailey R. F J. , Elner R. W. 1989 "Growth and distribution of snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, in the southeastern Gulf of St." Lawrence. Journal of Shellfish Research Vol 8 12 23
33. Rosa R. , Calado R. , Andrade A. M. , Narciso L. , Nunes M. L. 2005 "Changes in amino acids and lipids during embryogenesis of European lobster, Homarus gammarus (Crustacea: Decapoda)." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Vol 140 241 249
34. Rosa R. , Calado R. , Narciso L. , Nunes M. L. 2007 "Embryogenesis of decapod crustaceans with different life history traits, feeding ecologies and habitats: a fatty acid approach." Marine Biolgy Vol 151 935 947
35. Rosa R. , Morais S. , Caldado R. , Narcico L. , Nunes M. L. 2003 "Biochemical changes during the embryonic development of Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus." Aquaculture Vol 221 507 522
36. Rugolo L. J. , Pengilly D. , MacIntosh R. A. , Gravel K. A. 2005 "Reproductive dynamics and life-history of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in the eastern Bering Sea. Final completion report to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game under NOAA Award NA17FW1274." 271 pp. National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington
37. Rugolo L. J. , Chilton E. A. , Armistead C. E. , Haaga J. A. 2006 "Report to industry on the 2006 Eastern Bering Sea crab survey." Alaska Fisheries Science Center Processed Report 2006-17, 61 pp. Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service
38. Sainte-Marie B. , Hazel F. 1992 "Moulting and mating of snow crabs, Chionoecetes opilio (O. Fabricius), in shallow waters of the Northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol 49 1282 1293
39. Sainte-Marie B. , Sevigny J-M. , Smith B. D. , Lovrich G. A. 1996 "Recruitment variability in snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio): Pattern, possible causes, and implications for fishery management." In: High Latitude Crabs: Biology, Management and Economics, Lowell Wakefield Fisheries Symposium. University of Alaska Sea Grant, AK-SG-96-02, Fairbanks, pp. 451-478
40. Turnock B. J. , Rugolo L. J. 2006 "Stock assessment of eastern Bering Sea snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio). Report to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council." 79 pp. National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington
41. Van Deventer D. , Mallikarjunan P. 2002 "Comparative performance analysis of three electronic nose systems using different sensor technologies in odor analysis of retained solvent on printed packaging." Journal of Food Science Vol 67 3170 3183
42. Wehrtmann I. S. , Kattner G. 1998 "Changes in volume, biomass, and fatty acids of developing eggs in Nauticaris magellanica (Decapoda: Caridea): A latitudinal comparison." Journal Crustacean Biology Vol 18 413 422
43. Wehrtmann I. S. , Graeve M. 1998 "Lipid composition and utilization in developing eggs of two tropical marine caridean shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae: Palaemonidae)." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Vol 121 457 463
44. Wen X. B. , Chen L. Q. , Zhou Z. L. , Ai C. X. , Deng G. Y. 2002 "Reproduction response of Chinese mitten-handed crab (Eriocheir sinensis) fed different sources of dietary lipid." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology Vol 131 675 681
45. Wouters R. , Gmez L. , Lavens P. , Caledern J. 1999 "Feeding enriched Artemia biomass to Penaeus vannamei broodstock: Its effect on reproductive performance and larval quality." Journal of Shellfish Research Vol 18 651 656
46. Wouters R. , Lavens P. , Nieto J. , Sorgeloos P. 2001 "Penaeid shrimp broodstock nutrition: an updated review on research and development." Aquaculture Vol 202 1 21
47. Xu X. L. , Ji W. J. , Castell J. D. , O'Dor R. K. 1994 "Influence of dietary lipid sources on fecundity, egg hatchability and fatty acid composition of Chinese prawn (Penaeus chinensis) broodstock." Aquaculture Vol 119 359 370
48. Ylitalo G. M. , Yanagida G. K. , Hufnagle L. Jr. , Krahn M. M. 2005 "Determination of lipid classes and lipid content in tissues of aquatic organisms using a thin layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC/FID) microlipid method." In, G. K. Ostrander (ed.), Techniques in Aquatic Toxicology: Vol. 2, CRC Press

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Journal of Crustacean Biology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation