Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Osmoregulation in Hypogean Populations of the Freshwater Amphipod, Gammarus pulex (L.)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

This Article is currently unavailable for purchase.
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Cover image Placeholder

Abstract The freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex is widely distributed in freshwater streams and rivers of Europe. This amphipod also has isolated hypogean populations, which are transparent in appearance, suggestive of adaptation to their cave environment. Since cave habitats are often food limited, physiological adaptations have been observed that reduce the energy expenditure of cave organisms. Osmoregulation is an energetically expensive mechanism that allows gammarids to survive in fresh water. This study tested the hypothesis that differences in osmoregulation existed between hypogean and epigean populations of G. pulex. The osmoregulatory parameters measured were haemolymph cation concentrations, water and sodium fluxes and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity. The hypogean G. pulex had significantly lower haemolymph sodium and potassium concentrations, but had a significantly higher haemolymph ammonium concentration than the epigean G. pulex. The low food availability in the hypogean environment was considered to be the underlying cause for these differences in haemolymph ion concentrations.

Affiliations: 1: (SJB, correspondence, Norwegian Institute of Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway; 2: (CL, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Brooks S. J. , Lloyd Mills C. 2003 "The effects of copper on osmoregulation in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex " Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 135A 527 537 [Crossref]
2. Brooks S. J. , Lloyd Mills C. 2006 "Gill Na +, K +-ATPase in a series of hyper-regulating gammarid amphipods. Enzyme characterisation and the effects of salinity acclimation" Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 144A 24 32 [Crossref]
3. Brooks S. J. , Platvoet D. , Lloyd Mills C. 2008 "Cation regulation and alteration of water permeability in the amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus: an indicator of invasion potential" Fundamental and Applied Limnology Vol 172 183 189 [Crossref]
4. Chevreux E. 1896 "Sur un amphipode d'eau douce, Niphargus vireinov. sp., provent des grottes du Jura" Bulletin du Museum d'Hostoire Naturelle Vol 2 136 137
5. Culver D. C. 1985 "Trophic relationships in aquatic cave environments" Stygologia Vol 1 43 53
6. Culver D. C. , Kane T. C. , Fong D. W. 1995 Adaptation and Natural Selection in Caves: Evolution of Gammarus minus Harvard University Press Cambridge, London
7. Danielopol D. L. , Creuzé des Châtelliers M. , Mösslacher F. , Pospisil P. , Popa R. 1994 "Adaptation of crustacea to interstitial habitats: A practical agenda for ecological studies" pp. 217 243 In, Gibert J. , Danielopol D. L. , Stanford J. A. (eds.) Ground Water Ecology Academic Press San Diego
8. Danielopol D. L. , Dreher J. , Gunatilaka A. , Kaiser M. , Niederreiter R. , Pospisil P. , Creuzé des Châtelliers M. , Richter A. 1992 "Ecology of organisms living in a hypoxic groundwater environment at Vienna (Austria); methodological questions and preliminary results" pp. 79 90 In, Stanford J. A. , Simons J. J. (eds.) Proceedings of the First International Conference on Groundwater Ecology American Water Resources Association Bethesda, Maryland
9. Dawson M. E. 1982 Aspects of osmoregulation in the amphipod Gammarus duebeni: the effects of changing salinity and some potential pollutants Ph.D. Thesis. University of Southampton U. K
10. Forskål P. 1775 "Discriptiones Animalium Avium, Amphibiorum, Piscium, Insectorum, Vermium; quae in Itinere orientali observavit" Petrus Forskål. Post mortem auctoris editit Carsten Niebuhr. Adjuncta est material Medica Kahirina, Hafniae. xxxiv, 164 pp.
11. Freire C. A. , Onken H. , McNamara J. C. 2008 "A structure-function analysis of ion transport in crustacean gills and excretory organs" Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 151A 272 304 [Crossref]
12. Gibert J. , Mathieu J. 1980 "Relations entre les teneurs en protéines, glucides et lipides au cours du jeûne expérimental chez deux espèces de Niphargus peuplant des biotopes différents" Crustaceana Supplement Vol 6 137 147
13. Girard C. 1852 "A revision of the North American Astici, with observations on their habits and geographical distribution" Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Vol 6 87 91
14. Hervant F. 1996 "The activities of enzymes associated with the intermediary and energy metabolism in hypogean and epigean crustaceans" Biochemistry Vol 319 1071 1077
15. Hervant F. , Mathieu J. , Barré H. 1999 "Comparative study on the metabolic responses of subterranean and surface-dwelling amphipods to long-term starvation and subsequent refeeding" The Journal of Experimental Biology Vol 202 3587 3595
16. Hervant F. , Mathieu J. , Messana G. 1997a "Locomotory, ventilatory and metabolic responses of the subterranean Stenasellus virei(Crustacea: Isopoda) to severe hypoxia and subsequent recovery" Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences de Paris, Sciences de la Vie Vol 320 139 148
17. Hervant F. , Mathieu J. , Messana G. 1998 "Oxygen consumption and ventilation in declining oxygen tension and post hypoxic recovery in epigean and hypogean aquatic crustaceans" Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 18 717 727 [Crossref]
18. Hervant F. , Mathieu J. , Barré H. , Simon K. , Pinon C. 1997b "Comparative study on the behavioural, ventilatory, and respiratory responses of hypogean and epigean crustaceans to long-term starvation and subsequent feeding" Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 118A 1277 1283 [Crossref]
19. Holsinger J. R. 1988 "Troglobites: the evolution of cave-dwelling organisms" American Science Vol 76 146 153
20. Holsinger J. R. , Culver D. C. 1970 "Morphological variation in Gammarus minusSay (Amphipoda, Gammaridae), with emphasis on subterranean forms" Postilla Vol 146 1 24
21. Hüppop K. 1985 "The role of metabolism in the evolution of cave animals" Bulletin of National Speleology Society Vol 47 136 146
22. Koch C. L. 1835 Deutschlands Crustaceen, Myriapoden und Arachniden. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Fauna Friedrich Pustet Regensburg
23. Krogh A. 1939 Osmotic Regulation in Aquatic Animals Cambridge University Press Cambridge
24. Latreille P. A. 1804 "Histoire naturelle… des Crustacés et des Insectes. Histoire naturelle, génerale et particulière, des Crustacés et des Insectes. Ouvrage faissant suite aux oevres de Leclerc de Buffon, et partie du cours complet d'histoire naturelle rédigé par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes" In, Buffon G. L. L. (ed.) Vol. 7 F. Dufart Paris pp.
25. Lavy D. , Nedvedb O. , Verhoefa H. A. 1982 "Effects of starvation on body composition and cold tolerance in the collembolan Orchesella cinctaand the isopod Porcellio scaber " Journal of Insect Physiology Vol 43 973 978 [Crossref]
26. Liljeborg W. 1852 "Norges Crustaceer" Oversigt af Konglelige Vetensskaps-Akademiens Forhandlinger, Attonde Argangen Vol 8 19 25
27. Linnaeus C. 1758 Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis (edit. 10). Vol. 1 Laurentii Salvii Holmiae [Stockholm] pp.
28. Lockwood A. P. M. 1961 "The urine of Gammarus duebeniand G. pulex " Journal of Experimental Biology Vol 38 647 658
29. Lockwood A. P. M. , Inman C. B. E. 1973 "The blood volume of some amphipod crustaceans in relation to the salinity of the environment they inhabit" Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 44A 935 941 [Crossref]
30. Lockwood A. P. M. , Inman C. B. E. , Courtenay T. H. 1973 "The influence of environmental salinity on the water fluxes of the amphipod crustacean Gammarus duebeni " Journal of Experimental Biology Vol 58 137 148
31. Malard F. , Hervant F. 1999 "Oxygen supply and the adaptations of animals in groundwater" Freshwater Biology Vol 41 1 30 [Crossref]
32. McLusky D. S. 1970 "Osmoregulation in Corophium volutator– the effect of starvation" Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 35 303 306 [Crossref]
33. Morritt D. , Spicer J. I. 1993 "A brief re-examination of the function and regulation of extracellular magnesium and its relationship to activity in crustacean arthropods" Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 106 19 23 [Crossref]
34. Parry G. 1961 "Chloride regulation in Triops" Nature Vol 192 468 469 [Crossref]
35. Péqueux A. 1995 "Osmotic regulation" Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 15 1 60 [Crossref]
36. Sarver R. G. , Flynn M. A. , Holliday C. W. 1994 "Renal Na, K-ATPase and osmoregulation in the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii " Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol 107 349 356 [Crossref]
37. Say T. 1818 "An account of the Crustacea of the United States" Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia Vol 1 (2(1)) 235 253
38. Stobbart R. H. 1960 "Studies on the exchange and regulation of sodium in the larva of Aëdes aegypti(L.). II. The net transport and the fluxes associated with it" The Journal of Experimental Biology Vol 37 594 608
39. Subhashini M. H. , Ravindranath M. H. 1982 "Significance of periodic fluctuations in the haemolymph proteins and their catabolic products during starvation and repeated injury in Scylla serrata(Forskal)" Journal of Experimental Zoology Vol 222 27 35 [Crossref]
40. Sutcliffe D. W. 1971 "Sodium influx and loss in freshwater and brackish water populations of the amphipod Gammarus duebeniLilljeborg" Journal of Experimental Biology Vol 54 255 268
41. Sutcliffe D. W. 1984 "Quantitative aspects of oxygen-uptake by gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda), a critical review" Freshwater Forum Vol 14 443 489 [Crossref]
42. Sutcliffe D. W. , Shaw J. 1967 "The sodium balance mechanism in the freshwater amphipod, Gammarus Lacustrissars" Journal of Experimental Biology Vol 46 519 528
43. Vawter A. T. , Fong D. W. , Culver D. C. 1987 "Negative phototaxis in surface and cave populations of the amphipod Gammarus minus " Stygologia Vol 3 83 88
44. Waltham A. C. , Simms M. J. , Farrant A. R. , Goldie H. S. 1997 Karst and Caves of Great Britain Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Chapman & Hall London pp.
45. Werntz H. O. 1963 "Osmotic regulation in marine and freshwater gammarids (Amphipoda)" Biological Bulletin Vol 124 225 239 [Crossref]
46. Wood P. J. , Gunn J. , Perkins J. 2002 "Pollution of subterranean geo-ecosystems – Out of sight, out of mind" Archiv für Hydrobiologie Vol 155 223 237

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation