Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Survival and Growth of the Stygophilic Amphipod Gammarus troglophilus Under Laboratory Conditions

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

This Article is currently unavailable for purchase.
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Cover image Placeholder

Abstract Amphipods play important roles in the cycling of nutrients and energy in many aquatic systems where they display a wide range of feeding modes ranging from detritivore to predator. Although the biology of many amphipod species has been examined, little is known of hypogean amphipods inhabiting cave streams. Gammarus troglophilus is a stygophilic amphipod that co-occurs with the federally endangered stygobiont G. acherondytes in cave streams of the Salem Plateau Karst Region of southwestern Illinois. With the goal to establish a self-sustaining laboratory population of cave amphipods to obtain amphipods for lethality experiments, we tested hypotheses relating the survival and growth rates of G. troglophilus collected from cave streams to different laboratory conditions of food and water velocity. We used a series of microcosm experiments to test the hypotheses that survival and growth are not affected by type of water (cave water vs. amended water), water velocity (static vs. dynamic/recirculating), or the type of available food (sediment vs. sediment, leaf discs, and TetraMin®). We also tested if different food treatments affected the survival and/or growth of juvenile amphipods and newly released neonates in static chambers. Our results indicate that cave water was important for survival because no amphipods survived past 30 days in experiments with water amended to resemble cave water. The addition of food (leaf discs and TetraMin®) and water velocity affected survival but not growth rates in microcosm experiments. Food treatment (leaf discs vs. TetraMin®) did not significantly affect survival or growth rates of juvenile amphipods. However, leaf discs increased the survival and growth of neonate amphipods. Overall, survival was low in all experiments and further research is needed to examine the effects of handling stress on survival during experiments because amphipods left in stock tanks survived and grew well.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, PO Box 441136, Moscow, ID 83844, U.S.A. Current address: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Aquatic Biology Program, A126 Bevill Building, 201 Seventh Ave Box 870206, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 34587, U.S.A; 2: Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, PO Box 441136, Moscow, Idaho 83844, U.S.A


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Aley T. , Moss P. 2001 "Recharge area delineation of the Pautler Cave system and Annbriar Spring in Monroe County, Illinois" Final Report to the Illinois Nature Preserve Commission.
2. Aley T. , Moss P. , Aley C. 2000 "Delineation of recharge areas for four biologically significant cave systems in Monroe and St. Clair counties, Illinois" Final Report to the Illinois Nature Preserves Commission and the Monroe County Soil and Water Conservation District.
3. Bärlocher F. , Kendrick B. 1975 "Assimilation efficiency of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus(Amphipoda) feeding on fungal mycelium or autumn-shed leaves" Oikos Vol 26 55 59 [Crossref]
4. Bewick V. , Cheel L. , Ball J. 2004 "Statistics review 12: survival analysis" Critical Care Vol 8 389 394 [Crossref]
5. Bousfield E. L. 1958 "Fresh-water amphipod crustaceans of glaciated North America" Canadian Field Naturalist Vol 72 55 113
6. Chevreux E. 1896 "Sur un amphipode d'eau douce" Bulletin de Museum d'Histoire Naturelle Vol 2 136 137
7. Cope E. D. , Packard A. S. 1881 "The fauna of the Nickajack Cave" American Naturalist Vol 15 877 882, pl. 7 [Crossref]
8. Culver D. C. 1985 "Trophic relationships in aquatic cave environments" Stygologia Vol 1 43 53
9. DeMarch B. G. E. 1981 " Hyalella azteca(Saussure)" pp. 61 67 In, Lawrence S. G. (ed.) A Manual for the Culture of Selected Freshwater Invertebrates. Special Publication 54 Department of Fisheries and Oceans Ottawa, ON, Canada
10. Dickson G. W. 1979 "The importance of cave mud sediments in food preference, growth, and mortality of the troglobitic amphipod crustacean Crangonyx antennatusPackard (Crangonyctidae)" Crustaceana Vol 36 129 140 [Crossref]
11. Eaton A. D. , Clesceri L. S. , Rice E. W. , Greenberg A. E. (eds.) 2005 Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater Joint publication of the American Public Health Association (APHA), the American Water Works Association (AWWA), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF) Washington, D.C
12. Forbes S. A. 1876 "List of Illinois Crustacea, with description of new species" Bulletin of the Illinois Museum of Natural History Vol 1 3 25
13. Frankenberg D. , Smith K. L. 1967 "Coprophagy in marine animals" Limnology and Oceanography Vol 12 443 450 [Crossref]
14. Frankenberg D. , Cole S. L. , Johannes R. E. 1967 "The potential trophic significance of Callianassa majorfecal pellets" Limnology and Oceanography Vol 12 113 120 [Crossref]
15. Fredette T. J. , Diaz R. J. 1996 "Life history of Gammarus mucronatusSay (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) in warm temperate estuarine habitats, York River, Virginia" Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 6 57 78 [Crossref]
16. Gibert J. , Deharveng L. 2002 "Subterranean ecosystems: a truncated functional biodiversity" Bioscience Vol 52 473 481 [Crossref]
17. Graening G. O. , Brown A. V. 2003 "Ecosystem dynamics and pollution effects in an Ozark cave stream" Journal of the American Water Resources Association Vol 39 1497 1507 [Crossref]
18. Hargrave B. T. 1970 "The utilization of benthic microflora by Hyalella azteca(Amphipoda)" The Journal of Animal Ecology Vol 39 427 437 [Crossref]
19. Howard R. K. 1982 "Impact of feeding activities of epibenthic amphipods on surface fouling of eelgrass" Aquatic Botany Vol 14 91 97 [Crossref]
20. Hubricht L. , Mackin J. G. 1940 "Descriptions of nine new species of fresh-water amphipod crustaceans with notes and new localities for other species" American Midland Naturalist Vol 23 187 218 [Crossref]
21. Hüppop K. 2000 "How do cave animals cope with the food scarcity in caves" pp. 159 188 In, Wilkens H. , Culver D. C. , Humphreys W. F. (eds.) Ecosystems of the World 30: Subterranean Ecosystems Elsevier Amsterdam
22. Hyman L. H. 1945 "North American triclad Turbellaria XI, New, chiefly caverniculous, planarians" The American Midland Naturalist Vol 34 75 484 [Crossref]
23. Jenio F. 1980 "The life cycle and ecology of Gammarus troglophilusHubricht and Mackin" Crustaceana Supplement Vol 6 204 215
24. Karlson K. , Bonsdorff E. , Rosenberg R. 2007 "The impact of benthic macrofauna for nutrient fluxes from Baltic Sea sediments" AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment Vol 36 161 167 [Crossref]
25. Kelly D. W. , Dick J. T. A. , Montgomery W. I. 2002 "The functional role of Gammarus(Crustacea, Amphipoda): shredders, predators, or both?" Hydrobiologia Vol 485 199 203 [Crossref]
26. Kostalos M. , Seymour R. L. 1976 "Role of microbial enriched detritus in the nutrition of Gammarus minus(Amphipoda)" Oikos Vol 27 512 516 [Crossref]
27. Lewis J. J. 2003 The 2003 non-lethal censusing of Gammarus acherondytes communities in southwestern Illinois Final report to the Endangered Species Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Springfield, IL
28. Lewis J. J. , Lewis S. L. 2007 The 2007 census of Gammarus acherondytes communities in southwestern Illinois Final report to the Endangered Species Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Springfield, IL
29. Linnaeus C. 1758 Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis (edit. 10). Vol. 1 Laurentii Salvii Holmiae [Stockholm] pp.
30. Mackin J. G. , Hubricht L. 1940 "Description of seven new species of Caecidotea(Isopoda, Asellidae) from Central United States" Transactions of the American Microscopical Society Vol 59 383 397 [Crossref]
31. MacNeil C. , Dick J. T. A. , Elwood R. W. 1997 "The trophic ecology of freshwater Gammarusspp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda): problems and perspectives concerning the functional feeding group concept" Biology Review Vol 72 349 364 [Crossref]
32. MacNeil C. , Dick J. T. A. , Elwood R. W. 1999 "The dynamics of predation on Gammarusspp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda)" Biology Review Vol 74 375 395 [Crossref]
33. Marchant R. , Hynes H. B. N. 1981 "The distribution of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus(Crustacea: Amphipoda) along a reach of the Credit River, Ontario" Freshwater Biology Vol 11 169 182 [Crossref]
34. McCahon C. P. , Pascoe D. 1988 "Culture techniques for three freshwater macroinvertebrate species and their use in toxicity tests" Chemosphere Vol 17 2471 2480 [Crossref]
35. Nelson D. 2010 Food web structure of cave streams in southwestern Illinois and the survival and growth of the stygophilic Gammarus troglophilus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) under laboratory conditions. Master's Thesis University of Idaho
36. Nelson M. K. , Brunson E. L. 1995 "Postembryonic growth and development of Hyalella aztecain laboratory cultures and contaminated sediments" Chemosphere Vol 31 3129 3140 [Crossref]
37. Othman M. S. , Pascoe D. 2001 "Growth, development, and reproduction of Hyalella azteca(Sausurre, 1858) in laboratory culture" Crustaceana Vol 74 171 181 [Crossref]
38. Panno S. V. , Krapac I. G. , Weibel C. P. , Bade J. D. 1996 "Groundwater contamination in karst terrain of southwestern Illinois" Illinois State Geological Survey Environmental Geology Series Vol 151 1 43
39. Pyke D. A. , Thompson J. N. 1986 "Statistical analysis of survival and removal rate experiments" Ecology Vol 67 240 245 [Crossref]
40. Rasband W. S. 1997 ImageJ U.S. National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A Available: , 1997, 2005. November 2005.
41. Robinson A. I. , Mann K. H. 1980 "The role of isopods and amphipods in the initial fragmentation of eelgrass detritus in Nova Scotia, Canada" Marine Biology Vol 59 63 69 [Crossref]
42. SAS Institute 2009 SAS version 9.2 for Windows SAS Institute Inc Cary, NC, USA
43. Say T. 1818 "An account of the Crustacea of the United States" Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia Vol 1 [2(1)] 235 253
44. Shaw G. 1979 "Prey selection by breeding dippers" Bird Study Vol 26 66 67 [Crossref]
45. Taylor S. J. , Webb D. W. 2000 "Subterranean Amphipoda (Crustacea) of Illinois' Salem Plateau: spatial and temporal components of microdistribution" Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report 2000 Vol 27 1 62
46. Taylor S. J. , Wilhelm F. M. , Adams G. L. , Venarsky M. P. 2003 "Establishing baseline data on seasonal physiological requirements for Gammarus acherondytesand Gammarus troglophilusin relation to microbial demand" Illinois Natural History Survey Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2003 Vol 20 1 50
47. United States Environmental Protection Agency 2000 Methods for measuring the toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants with freshwater invertebrates Office of Science and Technology, Office of Water Washington D.C. 20460 EPA 600/R-99/064.
48. United States Fish and Wildlife Service 2002 Illinois cave amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes) recovery plan United States Fish and Wildlife Service Fort Snelling, Minnesota
49. Venarsky M. P. , Wilhelm F. M. , Anderson F. E. 2007 "Conservation strategies supported by non-lethal life history sampling of the U.S. federally listed Illinois cave amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes " Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 27 202 211 [Crossref]
50. von Ende C. N. 1993 "Repeated-measures analysis: Growth and other time dependent measures" pp. 113 137 In, Scheiner S. , Gurevitch I. (eds.) The Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments Chapman and Hall New York
51. Welton J. S. 1979 "Life-history and production of the amphipod Gammarus pulexin a Dorset chalk stream" Freshwater Biology Vol 9 263 275 [Crossref]
52. Wilhelm F. M. , Schindler D. W. 1999 "Effects of Gammarus lacustris(Crustacea: Amphipoda) on plankton community structure in an alpine lake" Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science Vol 56 1401 1408 [Crossref]
53. Wilhelm F. M. , Taylor S. J. , Adams G. L. 2002 "Establishing baseline data on seasonal physiological requirements on Gammarus acherondytesand Gammarus troglophilusin relation to microbial oxygen demand" Progress Report No. 5 (2002), Illinois Department of Natural Resources.
54. Wilhelm F. M. , Taylor S. J. , Adams G. L. 2006 "Comparison of routine metabolic rates of the stygobite, Gammarus acherondytes(Amphipoda: Gammaridae) and the stygophile, Gammarus lacustris " Freshwater Biology Vol 51 1161 1174 [Crossref]

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation