Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Studies on Tetraclita Squamosa and Tetraclita Japonica (Cirripedia: Thoracica) II: Larval Morphology and Development

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

This Article is currently unavailable for purchase.
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Cover image Placeholder

Abstract Nauplius larvae (Stages I–VI) and cyprids of Tetraclita squamosa (Brugiére, 1789) and Tetraclita japonica (Pilsbry, 1916) were cultured and their morphologies compared using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using a mixture of Skeletonema costatum Greville, 1866, Isochrysis galbana Parke, 1938, and Tetraselmis Stein, 1878, sp. as food, the larvae of both species completed naupliar development and metamorphosed to cyprids in ∼14 days at 20°C. The body shape and size of the larvae of both species are similar. The major diagnostic morphological difference is the setation of the antennulae and mandibulae. From Stage V to VI, the antennulae of T. japonica bear one more preaxial seta than T. squamosa. From Stage IV to VI, the mandibulae of T. japonica also bear one more simple seta on the endopodite than T. squamosa. The size, shape, antennular morphology, and surface sculpturing of the cyprids of the two species are similar when observed under SEM. The morphology of T. squamosa and of T. japonica is compared with those of the larvae of other Tetraclita species, and taxonomic relationships within the possibly monophyletic Tetraclitidae are discussed.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Ecology & Biodiversity, The Swire Institute of Marine Science, The Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of China (


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Anderson M. L. , Bohn M. , Heg J. T. , Jensen P. G. 1990 "Cyprid ultrastructure and adult morphology in Ptychascus barnwelli new species and P. glaber (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 10: 30 38
2. Barker M. F. 1976 "Culture and morphology of some New Zealand barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia)." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research Vol 10: 139 158
3. Barnes M. , Achituv Y. 1981 "The nauplius stage of the cirripede Tetraclita squamosa rufotincta Pilsbry." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Vol 54: 149 165
4. Bruguire M. 1789 "Encyclopedie methodique." Historie naturelle des Vers Vol 1: 158 173
5. Burrows M. T. , Hawkins S. J. , Southward A. J. 1999 "Larval development of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus stellatus and Chthamalus montagui." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Vol 79: 93 101
6. Cai R. , Huang Z. 1986 "The reproductive characteristics of some Cirripedia in Hong Kong waters." Pp. 945960 in B. Morton, ed. The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China III. Proceedings of the Second International Marine Biological Workshop: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China, 1984. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong
7. Chan B. K K. 2001 "Studies on Tetraclita squamosa and Tetraclita japonica (Cirripedia: Thoracica) I: adult morphology." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 21: 616 630
8. Chan B. K K. , Morritt D. , Williams G. A. 2001 "The effect of salinity and recruitment on the distribution of Tetraclita squamosa and Tetraclita japonica (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) in Hong Kong." Marine Biology Vol 138: 999 1009
9. Collis S. , Walker G. 1994 "The morphology of the nauplius stages of Sacculina carcini (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)." Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) Vol 75: 297 303
10. Crisp D. J. 1985 "Recruitment of barnacle larvae from the plankton." Bulletin of Marine Science Vol 37: 478 486
11. Egan E. A. , Anderson D. T. 1985 "Larval development of Elminius covertus Foster and Hexaminius popeiana Foster (Cirripedia: Archaeobalanidae: Elminiinae) reared in the laboratory." Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research Vol 36: 383 404
12. Elfimov A. S. 1995 "Comparative morphology of the thoracican cyprid larvae: studies of the carapace." Pp. 137152 in F. R. Schram and J. T. Heg, eds. New Frontiers in Barnacle Evolution. Crustacean Issues 10. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam
13. Foster B. A. 1978 "The marine fauna of New Zealand, Barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica)." Memoirs of the New Zealand Oceanography Institute Vol 69: 1 160
14. Glenner H. 1998 "Functional morphology of the cirripede cypris: a comparative approach." Pp. 161187 in M. F. Thompson and R. Nagabhushanam, eds. Barnacles, the Biofoulers. Regency Publications, New Delhi, India
15. Glenner H. , Heg J. T. 1995 "Scanning electron microscopy of cypris larvae of Balanus amphitrite amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Balanormorpha)." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 15: 523 536
16. Glenner H. , Heg J. T. , Klysner A. , Brodin B. L. 1989 "Cypris ultrastructure, metamorphosis and sex in seven families of parasitic barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocaphala)." Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) Vol 70: 229 242
17. Griffiths R. J I. 1979 "The reproductive season and larval development of the barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin." Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa Vol 44: 97 111
18. Hasegawa T. , Yamaguchi T. , Kojima S. , Ohta S. 1996 "Phylogenetic analysis among three species of intertidal barnacles of the genus Tetraclita (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) by nucleotide sequences of a mitochondrial gene." Benthos Research Vol 51: 33 39
19. Hirano R. 1953 "On the rearing and metamorphoses of four important barnacles in Japan." Journal of the Oceanography Society of Japan Vol 8: 139 143
20. Hiro 1939 "Studies on the cirripedian fauna of Japan IV, Cirripedes of Formosa (Taiwan) with some geographical and ecological remarks on the littoral forms." Memoris of the College of Science, Kyoto Imperial University, ser. B Vol 15: 245 284
21. James D. E. 1978 "Culturing Algae." Carolina Biological Supply Company, Burlington, North Carolina
22. Jensen P. G. , Heg J. T. , Bower S. , Rybakov A. V. 1994 "Scanning electron microscopy of lattice organ in cypris of the Rhizocephala Akentrogonida (Crustacea: Cirripedia)." Canadian Journal of Zoology Vol 72: 1018 1026
23. Karande A. A. 1974 "Larval development of the barnacle Tetraclitella karandei reared in the laboratory." Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) Vol 146: 249 257
24. Korn O. M. 1995 "Naupliar evidence for cirripede taxonomy and phylogeny." Pp. 87122 in F. R. Schram and J. T. Heg, eds. New Frontiers in Barnacle Evolution. Crustacean Issues 10. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam
25. Miller K. M. , Roughgarden J. 1994 "Descriptions of the larvae of Tetraclita rubescens and Megabalanus californicus with a comparison of the common barnacle larvae of the central California coast." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 14: 579 600
26. Molares J. , Tilves F. , Pascual C. 1994 "Larval development of the pedunculate barnacle Pollicipes cornucopia (Cirripedia: Scalpellomorpha) reared in the laboratory." Marine Biology Vol 120: 261 264
27. Moyse J. , Jensen P. G. , Heg J. T. , Al-Yahya H. A. 1995 "Attachment organs in cypris larvae: using scanning electron microscopy." Pp. 153178 in F. R. Schram and J. T. Heg, eds. Crustacean Issues 10: New Frontiers in Barnacle Evolution. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam
28. Newman W. A. 1965 "Prospectus on larval cirriped setation formulae." Crustaceana Vol 9: 51 56
29. Newman W. A. , Ross A. 1976 "Revision of the balanomorph barnacles; including a catalogue of the species." Memoirs of the San Diego Society of Natural History Vol 9: 1 108
30. Pilsbry H. A. 1916 "The sessile barnacles (Cirripedia) contained in the collection of the U.S. National Museum: including a monograph of the American species." Bulletin of the United States National Museum Vol 93: 241 353
31. Ross A. 1970 "Studies on Tetraclitidae (Cirripedia: Thoracica): a proposed new genus for the austral species Tetraclita purpurascens breviscutum." Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History Vol 16: 1 12
32. Ross A. 1999 "Studies on the Tetraclitidae (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha); new species of Tetraclita from Red Sea." Pakistan Journal of Marine Science Vol 8: 41 53
33. Standing J. D. 1980 "Common inshore barnacle cyprids of Oregonian faunal province (Crustacea: Cirripedia)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington Vol 93: 1184 1203
34. Tighe-Ford D. J. , Power M. J D. , Vaile D. C. 1970 "Laboratory rearing of barnacle larvae for antifouling research." Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meersuntersuchungen Vol 20: 393 405
35. Walker G. 1973 "Frontal horns and associated gland cells of the nauplii of the barnacles, Balanus hameri, Balanus balanoides and Elminius modestus (Crustacea: Cirripedia)." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Vol 53: 455 463
36. Walker G. 1985 "The cypris larvae of Sacculina carcini Thompson (Crustacea,: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Vol 93: 131 145
37. Walker G. , Lee V. E. 1976 "Surface structure and sense organs of the cyprid larva of Balanus balanoides as seen by scanning and transmission electron microscopy." Journal of Zoology, London Vol 178: 161 172
38. Walossek D. 1993 "The Upper Cambrian Rehbachiella and the phylogeny of Branchipoda and Crustacea." Fossils Strata Vol 32: 1 204
39. Walossek D. , Heg J. T. , Shirley T. C. 1996 "Larval development of the rhizocephalan cirripede Briarosaccus tenellus (Maxillopoda: Thecostraca) reared in the laboratory: a scanning electron microscopy study." Hydrobiologia Vol 328: 9 47
40. Yamaguchi T. 1987 "Changes in the barnacle fauna since the Miocene and the infraspecific structure of Tetraclita in Japan (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha)." Bulletin of Marine Science Vol 41: 337 359
41. Yan Y. , Chan B. K K. 2001 "Larval development of Chthamalus malayensis (Cirripedia: Thoracica) reared in the laboratory." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Vol 81: 623 632

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation