Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Evaluating the Monophyly of Eulimnadia and the Limnadiinae (Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata) Using DNA Sequences

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

This Article is currently unavailable for purchase.
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Cover image Placeholder

AbstractThe evolutionary relationships among the six nominal genera within the spinicaudate clam shrimp family Limnadiidae, as well as the validity of the limnadiid genus Eulimnadia, have been much debated in the literature with little consensus emerging. The lack of resolution on these topics impedes evaluations of limnadiid biodiversity, phylogeny, and character evolution. To address these issues, we used Bayesian and parsimony methods to analyze DNA sequences from three genetic loci (28S, 12S, cytb) that were obtained from representatives of five nominal limnadiid genera and one undescribed limnadiid species. These analyses confirm the monophyly of Eulimnadia and the most taxonomically inclusive phylogenetic analysis (28S) produces the following tree topology: (((((Eulimnadia, Metalimnadia), undescribed limnadiid), Imnadia), Limnadopsis), Limnadia). This topology is inconsistent with prior estimates of limnadiid inter-generic relationships. Maximum likelihood-based constraint analyses demonstrate that the above topology is significantly better than prior hypotheses of limnadiid relationships, and support the monophyly of Eulimnadia. Morphological character optimization on this topology suggests that the postulated close relationship between Limnadia and Eulimnadia is based on shared ancestral characteristics rather than synapomorphies. Furthermore, the discovery of the genetically distinct undescribed limnadiid lineage strongly supports the necessity of efforts to better evaluate limnadiid biodiversity, especially those in poorly collected zoogeographic regions.

Affiliations: 1: a(WRH, NDS, DMS, EGC) Evolutionary, Population, and Systematic Biology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242-0001 U.S.A. (Corresponding Author: WRH: (DMS: (EGC:; ; 2: b(SCW) Program in Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, Department of Biology, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3908 U.S.A. (


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Barnard K. H. 1929 "Contributions to the crustacean fauna of South Africa. A revision of the South African Branchiopoda (Phyllopoda)." Annals of the South African Museum Vol 29 181 270
2. Belk D. 1989 "Identification of species in the conchostracan genus Eulimnadia by egg shell morphology." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 9 115 125
3. Botnariuc N., Orghidan T. 1941 "Sur une nouvelle espece du genre Imnadia trouvee en Roumanie et sur les Imnadiidae n. fam." Bulletin Section Scientifique Academie Roumanie Vol 24 239 246
4. Braband A., Richter S., Hiesel R., Scholtz G. 2002 "Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllopoda (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol 25 229 244
5. Brehm V. 1933 "Phyllopoden, Mitteilungen von der Wallacea – Expedition Wolterek, 5." Zoologischer Anzeiger Vol 104 31 40
6. Brtek J. 1997 "Checklist of the valid and invalid names of the “large branchiopods” (Anostraca, Notostraca, Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata), with a survey of the taxonomy of all Branchiopoda." Zbornik Slovenskeho Narodneho Muzea, Prirodne vedy Vol 43 3 50
7. Daday E. 1925 "Monographie systematique des Phyllopodes Conchostraces. Troisieme partie." Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologies 10e serie Vol 8 143 184
8. Felsenstein J. 1985 "Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap." Evolution Vol 39 783 791
9. Folmer O., Black M., Hoeh W. R., Lutz R., Vrijenhoek R. 1994 "DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates." Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology Vol 3 294 299
10. Hertzog L. 1935 "Notes faunistiques de Camargue, I Crustacea." Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique Francaise Vol 60 265 281
11. Huelsenbeck J. P., Ronquist F. 2003 "MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogeny." Bioinformatics Vol 17 754 755
12. Kishino H., Hasegawa M. 1989 "Evaluation of the maximum likelihood estimate of the evolutionary tree topologies from DNA sequence data, and the branching order of the Hominoidea." Journal of Molecular Evolution Vol 29 170 179
13. Maddison W. P., Maddison D. R. 2000 "MacClade: Analysis of phylogeny and character evolution." Sinauer Assoc., Inc., Sunderland, MA
14. Martin J. W. 1989 "Eulimnadia belki, a new clam shrimp from Cozumel, Mexico (Conchostraca, Limnadiidae), with a review of Central and South American species of the Genus Eulimnadia." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 9 104 114
15. Martin J. W., Belk D. 1989 "Eulimnadia ovilunata and Eulimnadia ovisimilis, new species of clam shrimps (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata) from South America." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington Vol 102 894 900
16. Martin J. W., Davis G. E. 2001 "An updated classification of the recent Crustacea." Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions in Science Vol 39 1 164
17. Mattox N. 1952 "A new genus and species of Limnadiidae from Venezuela (Crustacea: Conchostraca)." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences Vol 42 23 26
18. Mattox N. 1954 "A new Eulimnadia from the rice fields of Arkansas with a key to the American species of the genus (Conchostraca, Limnadiidae)." Tulane Studies in Zoology Vol 2 3 10
19. Merritt T. J S., Shi L., Chase M. C., Rex M. A., Etter R. J., Quattro J. M. 1998 "Universal cytochrome b primers facilitate intraspecific studies in molluscan taxa." Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology Vol 7 7 11
20. Mullis K. B., Faloona F. A. 1987 "Specific synthesis of DNA invitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain-reaction." Methods in Enzymology Vol 155 335 350
21. Olesen J. 1998 "A phylogenetic analysis of the Conchostraca and Cladocera (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Diplostraca)." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Vol 122 491 536
22. Olesen J. 2000 "An updated phylogeny of the Conchostraca-Cladocera clade (Branchiopoda, Diplostraca)." Crustaceana Vol 73 869 886
23. Olesen J., Martin J. W., Roessler E. W. 1997 "External morphology of the male of Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird, 1859) (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata), with a comparison of male claspers among the Conchostraca and Cladocera and its bearing on phylogeny of the ‘bivalved’ Branchiopoda." Zoologica Scripta Vol 25 291 316
24. Park J-K., O'Foighil D. 2000 "Sphaeriid and corbiculid clams represent separate heterodont bivalve radiations into freshwater environments." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol 14 75 88
25. Pereira G., Garcia J. V. 2001 "A review of the clam shrimp family Limnadiidae (Branchiopoda, Conchostraca) from Venezuela, with the description of a new species." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 21 640 652
26. Posada D., Crandall K. A. 1998 "Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution." Bioinformatics Vol 14 817 818
27. Roessler E. W. 1995 "Review of Colombian Conchostraca (Crustacea) – ecological aspects and life cycles – families Lynceidae, Limnadiidae, Leptestheriidae and Metalimnadiidae." Hydrobiologia Vol 298 125 132
28. Sars G. O. 1895 "Descriptions of some Australian Phyllopoda." Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab Vol 17 1 27
29. Sayce O. A. 1903 "The Phyllopoda of Australia, including descriptions of some new genera and species." Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria Vol 15 224 261
30. Shimodaira H. 2002 "An approximately unbiased test of phylogenetic tree selection." Systematic Biology Vol 51 492 508
31. Shimodaira H., Hasegawa M. 1999 "Multiple comparisons of log-likelihoods with applications to phylogenetic inference." Molecular Biology and Evolution Vol 16 1114 1116
32. Shimodaira H., Hasegawa M. 2001 "CONSEL: for assessing the confidence of phylogenetic tree selection." Bioinformatics Vol 17 1246 1247
33. Spears T., Abele L. G. 2000 "Branchiopod monophyly and interordinal phylogeny inferred from18S ribosomal DNA." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 20 1 24
34. Spencer W. B., Hall T. S. 1896 "Crustacea report on the work of the Horn scientific expedition to central Australia. 11." Zoology. London (Dulau) and Melbourne Vol 8 227 248
35. Straskraba M. 1965 "Taxonomical studies on Czechoslovac Conchostraca. I. Family Limnadiidae." Crustaceana Vol 9 263 273
36. Swofford D. L. 2001 "PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other Methods)." Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts
37. Tasch P. 1969 "Branchiopoda pp. 128-191." In, R. C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part R, Arthropoda 4, vol. 1, University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas
38. Ueno M. 1927 "Freshwater Branchiopoda of Japan. 1." Memoirs. College of Science. Kyoto Imperial University Vol B2 259 311
39. Webb J. A., Bell G. D. 1979 "A new species of Limnadia (Crustacea: Conchostraca) from the Granite Belt in Southern Queensland and Northern New South Wales." Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales Vol 103 237 245

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation