Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Monophyly and Phylogeny of Branchiopoda, with Focus on Morphology and Homologies of Branchiopod Phyllopodous Limbs

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

This Article is currently unavailable for purchase.
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Cover image Placeholder

Abstract Aspects of the evolution of the branchiopod crustaceans are reviewed and discussed. Despite views to the contrary presented in recent textbooks, the monophyly of Branchiopoda is defended based on morphological characters. The crown group Branchiopoda is supported/diagnosed by a set of synapomorphies relating to limb morphology of both larvae and adults, including, among others, a similar naupliar swimming/feeding apparatus, a similar development of trunk limbs, and a similar morphology of adult trunk limbs with six endites (number reduced later) and an unsegmented endopod. Phyllopodous limbs are among the most well-known features of Branchiopoda, but it is uncertain whether the phyllopodous nature of the limbs in itself can be considered a synapomorphy for this group, because the limbs of other crustaceans, both recent and fossil, also can be characterised as at least partly phyllopodous. Homologies of branchiopod trunk limbs to those of other crustaceans are discussed; based on similarities to trunk limbs of certain ‘Orsten’ fossils, it is concluded that the large, undifferentiated ‘corm’ of the limb most likely is an enlarged basis. Within Branchiopoda, strong evidence for a monophyletic Phyllopoda sensu Preuss (all branchiopods except anostracans) is presented. A monophyletic Diplostraca is also preferred based on morphological information, and the supporting characters for this group are listed. A remarkable branchiopod crustacean from the Devonian has recently been described with morphological features combining those of Notostraca and ‘Conchostraca’; it has major significance for the understanding of early branchiopod evolution. The question of a marine versus freshwater origin of Branchiopoda is discussed.

Affiliations: 1: Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark (


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Ax P. 1985 "Stem species and the stem lineage concept." Cladistics Vol 1 279 287
2. Ax P. 1999 "Das System der Metazoa II." Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Fischer, Stuttgart
3. Belk D. , Schram F. R. 2001 "A new species of anostracan from the Miocene of California." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 21 49 55
4. Borradaile L. A. 1926 "Notes upon crustacean limbs." The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) Vol 17 193 213
5. Botnariuc N. , Orghidan T. 1953 "Phyllopoda." Akademia Republicii Populare Române, Bucuresti
6. Botnariuc N. , Viña Bays N. 1977 "Contribution la connaissance de la biologie de Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird), (Conchostraca: Crustacea) de Cuba,." pp. 257-262. In, T. Orghidan (ed.), Rsultats des Expditions Biosplogiques CubanoRoumaines Cuba, 2. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania, Bucuresti
7. Boxshall G. A. 1997 "Comparative limb morphology in major crustacean groups: the coxa-basis joint in postmandibular limbs,." pp. 155-167. In, R. A. Fortey and R. H. Thomas (eds.), Arthropod Relationships. Chapman & Hall, London
8. Boxshall G. A. 2004 "The evolution of arthropod limbs." Biological Reviews Vol 79 253 300
9. Braband A. , Richter S. , Hiesel R. , Scholtz G. 2002 "Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllopoda (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol 25 229 244
10. Calman W. T. 1909 "Crustacea." In, E. R. Lankester (ed.), A Treatise on Zoology. Part 7. Fascicle 3. Adam and Charles Black, London
11. Cannon H. G. , Leak F. M C. 1933 "On the feeding mechanism of the Branchiopoda. Appendix on the mouth parts of the Branchiopoda." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Vol 222 340 352
12. Elofsson R. 1966 "The nauplius eye and frontal organs of the non-Malacostraca (Crustacea)." Sarsia Vol 25 1 128
13. Eriksson S. 1934 "Studien ber die Fangapparate der Branchiopoden nebst einigen phylogenetischen Bemerkungen." Zoologiske Bidrag frn Uppsala Vol 15 23 287
14. Fayers S. T. , Trewin N. H. 2003 "A new crustacean from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert, Aberdeenshire, Scotland." Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Vol 93 355 382
15. Ferrara F. D. , Ivanenko V. N. 2001 "Interpreting segment homologies of the maxilliped of cyclopoid copepods by comparing stage-specific changes during development." Organisms Diversity and Evolution Vol 1 113 131
16. Ferrari F. D. , Grygier M. J. 2003 "Comparative morphology among trunk limbs of Caenestheriella gifuensis and Leptestheria kawachiensis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata)." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Vol 139 547 564
17. Flssner D. 1972 "Krebstiere, Crustacea. Kiemen und Blattfsser, Branchiopoda, Fischluse, Branchiura." In, Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 60. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena
18. Fryer G. 1974 "Evolution and adaptive radiation in the Macrothricidae (Crustacea: Cladocera): a study in comparative functional morphology and ecology." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Vol 269 137 274
19. Fryer G. 1983 "Functional ontogenetic changes in Branchinecta ferox (Milne-Edwards) (Crustacea, Anostraca)." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Vol 303 229 343
20. Fryer G. 1987 "A new classification of the branchiopod Crustacea." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Vol 91 357 383
21. Fryer G. 1988 "Studies on the functional morphology and biology of the Notostraca (Crustacea: Branchiopoda)." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Vol 321 27 124
22. Gerstaecker A. 1866-1879 "Crustacea (Erste Hlfte)." In, H. G. Bronn (ed.), Die Klassen und Ordnungen der Thier-Reichs, Bd. 5 (Arthropoda). Abt. 1
23. Gross W. 1934 "Eine Estheria aus dem rheinischen Unterdevon." Senckenbergiana Vol 16 309 313
24. Gruner H. E. 1993 "Arthropoda (ohne Insecta)." In, Lehrbuch der Speziellen Zoologie (Begrndet von Alfred Kaestner). Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, Stuttgart and New York
25. Gurney R. 1926 "The nauplius larva of Limnetis gouldi." Revue der Gesamte Hydrobiologie und Hydrogeographie Vol 16 114 117
26. Hansen H. J. 1925 "Studies on Arthropoda. II. On the Comparative Morphology of the Appendages in Arthropoda. A. Crustacea." Gyldendalske Boghandel, Kjbenhavn
27. Jurasz W. , Kittel W. , Presler P. 1983 "Life cycle of Branchinecta gaini Daday, 1910 (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) from King George Island, South Shetland Islands." Polish Polar Research Vol 4 143 154
28. Kaestner A. 1967 "Lehrbuch der Speziellen Zoologie. Bd. 1. Wirbellose, 1. Teil. 2. Auflage. Crustacea." Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart
29. Kummerow E. H E. 1939 "Die Ostracoden und Phyllopoden des deutschen Unterkarbons." Abhandlungen der Preussischen Landesanstalt Neue Folge Vol 194 1 107 7 pls
30. Latreille P. A. 1817 "Les Crustacs, les Arachnides, les Insectes." In, Cuvier G. Le Regne Animal Distribue d'apres son Organisation, pour Servir de Base a l'Histoire Naturelle des Animaux et d'Introduction a l'Anatomie. Deterville, Paris
31. Lauterbach K. E. 1989 "Das PanMonophylumEin Hilfsmittel fr die Praxis der Phylogenetischen Systematik." Zoologischer Anzeiger Vol 223 139 156
32. Linder F. 1952 "Contributions to the morphology and taxonomy of the Branchiopoda Notostraca, with special reference to the North American species." Proceedings of the United States National Museum Vol 102 1 69
33. Martin J. W. 1992 "Branchiopoda,." pp. 25-224. In, F. W. Harrison (ed.), Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, 9. Wiley-Liss, New York
34. Martin J. W. , Davis G. E. 2001 "An updated classification of the recent Crustacea." Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series Vol 39 1 124
35. Martin J. W. , Felgenhauer B. E. , Abele L. G. 1986 "Redescription of the clam shrimp Lynceus gracilicornis (Packard) (Branchiopoda, Conchostraca, Lynceidae) from Florida, with notes on its biology." Zoologica Scripta Vol 15 221 232
36. Martin J. W. , Cash-Clark C. E. 1995 "The external morphology of the onychopod cladoceran genus Bythotrephes (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Onychopoda, Cercopagididae), with notes on the morphology and phylogeny of the order Onychopoda." Zoologica Scripta Vol 24 61 90
37. Martin J. W. , Christiansen J. C. 1995 "A morphological comparison of the phyllopodous thoracic limbs of a leptostracan (Nebalia sp.) and a spinicaudate conchostracan (Leptestheria sp.), with comments on the use of Phyllopoda as a taxonomic category." Canadian Journal of Zoology Vol 73 2283 2291
38. McKenzie K. G. , Chen P-J. , Majoran S. 1991 "Almatium gusevi (Chernyshev, 1940): redescription, shield-shapes; and speculations on the reproductive mode (Branchiopoda, Kazacharthra)." Palontologische Zeitschrift Vol 65 305 317
39. McLaughlin P. A. 1980 "Comparative Morphology of Recent Crustacea." W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco
40. Mller O. S. , Olesen J. , Heg J. T. 2003 "SEM studies on the early development of Triops cancriformis (Bosc) (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca)." Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) Vol 84 267 284
41. Mller O. S. , Olesen J. , Heg J. T. 2004 "Study on the larval development of Eubranchipus grubii (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca), with notes on the basal phylogeny of the Branchiopoda." Zoomorphology Vol 123 107 123
42. Negrea S. , Botnariuc N. , Dumont H. J. 1999 "Phylogeny, evolution and classification of the Branchiopoda." Hydrobiologia Vol 412 191 212
43. Novojilov N. 1959 "Position systmatique des Kazacharthra (Arthropodes) d'aprs de nouveaux matriaux des monts Ketmen et Sajkan (Kazakhstan SE et NE)." Bulletin de la Socit de Gologie de France Vol 7 265 269
44. Olesen J. 1998 "A phylogenetic analysis of the Conchostraca and Cladocera (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Diplostraca)." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Vol 122 491 536
45. Olesen J. 1999 "Larval and post-larval development of the branchiopod clam shrimp Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird, 1859) (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Conchostraca, Spinicaudata)." Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) Vol 80 163 184
46. Olesen J. 2004 "On the ontogeny of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea): contribution of development to phylogeny and classification,." pp. 217-269. In, G. Scholtz (ed.), Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Crustacean Issues 15. A. A. Balkema Publishers, Lisse
47. Olesen J. 2005 "Larval development of Lynceus brachyurus (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Laevicaudata): redescription of unusual crustacean nauplii, with special attention to the moult between last nauplius and first juvenile." Journal of Morphology Vol 264 131 148
48. Olesen J. , Grygier M. J. 2003 "Larval development of Japanese conchostracans: part 1, larval development of Eulimnadia braueriana (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata, Limnadiidae) compared to that of other limnadiids." Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) Vol 84 41 61
49. Olesen J. , Grygier M. J. 2004 "Larval development of Japanese conchostracans: part 2, larval development of Caenestheriella gifuensis (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata, Cyzicidae), with notes on homologies and evolution of certain naupliar appendages within the Branchiopoda." Arthropod Structure and Development Vol 33 453 469
50. Olesen J. , Martin J. W. , Roessler E. W. 1997 "External morphology of the male of Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird, 1859) (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata), with comparison of male claspers among the Conchostraca and Cladocera and its bearing on phylogeny of the bivalved." Branchiopoda. Zoologica Scripta Vol 25 291 316
51. Olesen J. , Richter S. , Scholtz G. 2001 "The evolutionary transformation of phyllopodous to stenopodous limbs in the Branchiopoda (Crustacea)Is there a common mechanism for early limb development in arthropods?." The International Journal of Developmental Biology Vol 45 869 76
52. Olesen J. , Richter S. , Scholtz G. 2003 "On the ontogeny of Leptodora kindtii (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Cladocera), with notes on the phylogeny of the Cladocera." Journal of Morphology Vol 256 235 259
53. Orr P. J. , Briggs D. E G. 1999 "Exceptionally preserved conchostracans and other crustaceans from the Upper Carboniferous of Ireland." Special Papers in Palaeontology Vol 62 1 68
54. Pabst T. , Richter S. 2004 "The larval development of an Australian limnadiid clam shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata), and a comparison with other Limnadiidae." Zoologischer Anzeiger Vol 243 99 115
55. Preuss G. 1951 "Die Verwandtschaft der Anostraca und Phyllopoda." Zoologischer Anzeiger Vol 147 49 64
56. Preuss G. 1957 "Die Muskulatur der Gliedmaen von Phyllopoden und Anostraken." Mitteilungen des Zoologischen Museums Berlin Vol 33 221 257
57. Richter S. 2002 "The Tetraconata concept: hexapod-crustacean relationships and the phylogeny of Crustacea." Organisms Diversity and Evolution Vol 2 217 237
58. Richter S. 2004 "A comparison of the mandibular gnathal edges in branchiopod crustaceans: implications for the phylogenetic position of the Laevicaudata." Zoomorphology Vol 123 31 44
59. Ruppert E. E. , Fox S. F. , Barnes R. D. 2004 "Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach. Seventh Edition." Brooks Cole Thomson, Belmont, California, USA
60. Sanders H. L. 1963 "The Cephalocarida. Functional morphology, larval development, comparative external anatomy." Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences Vol 15 1 80
61. Sars G. O. 1887 "On Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird), a new generic type of bivalve Phyllopoda; raised from dried Australian mud." Christiania Videnskabs-Selskabs Forhandlinger Vol 1 1 65
62. Sars G. O. 1896 "Beskrivelse af de hidtil kjendte norske Arter af Underordnerne Phyllocarida og Phyllopoda Descriptions of the Norwegian species at present known belonging to the suborders Phyllocarida and Phyllopoda." In, Fauna Norvegi. Bd. I. Christiania
63. Sars G. O. 1898 "On some South-African Phyllopoda raised from dried mud." Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab B Vol 20 1 43 4 pls
64. Sars G. O. 1901 "Contributions to the knowledge of the fresh-water Entomostraca of South America, as shown by artificial hatching from dried material." Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab B Vol 23 3 1 102 1-12 pls
65. Sars G. O. 1902 "On the Polyphemidae of the Caspian Sea." Annuaire du Muse Zoologique de l'Acadmie Impriale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg Vol 7 31 54 4 pls
66. Sars G. O. 1993 "On the freshwater crustaceans occurring in the vicinity of Christiania." University Bergen Press (translation of an 1861 handwritten manuscript, University of Oslo Library)
67. Schram F. R. 1986 "Crustacea." Oxford University Press, New York
68. Schram F. R. , Koenemann S. 2001 "Developmental genetics and arthropod evolution: part 1, on legs." Evolution and Development Vol 3 343 354
69. Schram F. R. , Koenemann S. 2004 "Are the crustaceans monophyletic?." pp. 319-329. In, J. Cracraft and M. J. Donoghue (eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York
70. Scourfield D. J. 1926 "On a new type of crustacean from the Old Red Sandstone (Rhynie Chert Bed, Aberdeenshire)Lepidocaris rhyniensis gen. et sp. nov." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Vol 214 153 187
71. Snodgrass R. E. 1956 "Crustacean metamorphoses." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections Vol 131 1 78
72. Spears T. , Abele L. G. 2000 "Branchiopod monophyly and interordinal phylogeny inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA." Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 20 1 24
73. Stenderup J. T. , Olesen J. , Glenner H. 2006 "Molecular phylogeny of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea)multiple approaches suggest a diplostracan ancestry of the Notostraca." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol 41 182 194
74. Swain T. D. , Taylor D. J. 2003 "Structural rRNA characters support monophyly of raptorial limbs and paraphyly of limb specialization in water fleas." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Vol 270 887 896
75. Tasch P. 1963 "Evolution of the Branchiopoda,." pp. 145-157. In, H. B. Whittington and W. D. I. Rolfe (eds.), Phylogeny and Evolution of Crustacea. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication, Cambridge, Massachusetts
76. Tasch P. 1969 "Branchiopoda,." pp. 128-191. In, R. C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part R, Arthropoda 4. The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, and The Geological Society of America, Inc., Boulder, Colorado
77. Taylor D. J. , Crease T. J. , Brown W. M. 1999 "Phylogenetic evidence for a single long-lived clade of crustacean cyclic parthenogens and its implications for the evolution of sex." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Vol 266 791 797
78. Wagner N. 1868 "Hyalosoma dux, a new form of the group Daphnida (Crustacea Cladocera)." Arbeiten der erste Sitzung russ. Naturforscher in St. Petersburg 1868. Trudy I.S.R.E. Otd Zoologii 218-239. In Russian.
79. Walossek D. 1993 "The Upper Cambrian Rehbachiella and the phylogeny of Branchiopoda and Crustacea." Fossils and Strata Vol 32 1 202
80. Walossek D. , Mller K. J. 1998 "Early arthropod phylogeny in the light of Cambrian Orsten fossils,." pp. 185-231. In, G. Edgecombe (ed.), Arthropod Fossils and Phylogeny. Columbia University Press, New York
81. Williams T. A. 2004 "The evolution and development of crustacean limbs: an analysis of limb homologies,." pp. 169-193. In, G. Scholtz (ed.), Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Crustacean Issues 15. A. A. Balkema Publishers, Lisse, Abingdon, Exton (PA), and Tokyo
82. Williams T. A. , Mller G. B. 1996 "Limb development in a primitive crustacean, Triops longicaudatus: subdivision of the early limb bud gives rise to multibranched limbs." Development Genes and Evolution Vol 206 161 168
83. Zhang W. , Shen Y. , Niu S. 1990 "Discovery of Jurassic conchostracans with well-preserved soft parts and notes on its biological significance." Palaeontologia Cathayana Vol 5 311 355

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation