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Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

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This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983–1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a “Three Levels/Four Parameters” analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept of institutions from W. Richard Scott (2007). We use this framework to analyze management cooperation between UT and HUST. Qualitative data is collected through open-ended interviews with participants of the CCMEP and from a review of historical literature. Through this analysis, we find that mutuality in the CCMEP was gradually established. During this process, the national macro-level institutional framework, the interactive consultations between UT and HUST, and the increased understanding of HUST’s needs and culture constitute the three levels of institutionalized mutuality in the CCMEP. The UT project directors’ understanding about Chinese culture, values, and beliefs was the key to the success of the CCMEP. Among the four parameters of mutuality, autonomy is the core parameter.

Affiliations: 1: School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074,; 2: School of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China


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